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What to Listen For in RockA Stylistic Analysis$

Ken Stephenson

Print publication date: 2002

Print ISBN-13: 9780300092394

Published to Yale Scholarship Online: October 2013

DOI: 10.12987/yale/9780300092394.001.0001

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(p.245) Index

(p.245) Index

Source:
What to Listen For in Rock
Publisher:
Yale University Press
1 + 1 model: defined, 19;
as structural dissonance, 19, 148, 162
2 + 2 model: defined, 7–9;
compared to extension-overlap model, 10;
compared to first-downbeat model, 14;
compared to 1 + 1 model, 19;
examples, 147, 148, 156
3 + 1 model, 3–4, 175
Acoustics, 50, 80
Added-fourth chord: as tonic harmony, 85
Added-note chord, 74, 84–85, 149, 164
Added-second chord: as tonic harmony, 85
Added-sixth chord: rare in rock, 85
Aeolian scale: as diatonic collection, 39;
compared to hexatonic collection, 40;
no leading tone in, 43. See also Natural-minor scale
Ambiguity: of phrase rhythm, 24, 25;
of key, 32, 42, 46, 52, 151, 155, 161;
of mode, 49–50;
of harmonic system, 96;
of form, 122, 132–33, 168, 169, 170;
of rhythm, 127–28;
in Bach, 128;
of harmony, 164;
of root movement, 180
Analysis: as model of perception, 31, 34
Antiperiodic structure: as icon of heaven, xvii;
described, 111–13
Augmented triad: rare in rock, 86
Augustine: on poetic form, 134
Authentic cadence: as indicator of key, 32–33, 49;
traditional use, 55, 105, 111, 125, 178;
rarity in rock, 56, 60, 112, 178;
example, 62;
melodic possibilities with, 66;
historical development of, 118
Bach, J. S.: and keys, 30, 31;
ambiguity in, 128
Banks, Tony: on wrong-bass chords, 178
Bass: as bearer of harmonic identity, 78;
with “wrong note,” 178, 180
Beat: primacy of, 5, 8–9, 28, 126;
as resolution of stop time, 127
Beginning-oriented motion, 21, 26, 28, 59, 62. See also Tonic harmony: at beginning of unit
(p.246) Benward, Bruce: on rock, 100–101;
on progression, 111
Binary form: in strophic songs, 139. See also Rounded-binary form
Blues: as source of 2 + 2 model, 8;
plagal cadence in, 33;
altered third scale degree, 37, 38, 49–50, 51, 79, 179;
progression, influence on rock harmony, 101, 103, 110, 111, 113, 147;
and strophic form, 139
Breathing: need for, 3, 4, 8, 54;
and musical phrases, 53–54
Bridge: defined, 137–38;
in roundedbinary form, 137, 140;
instrumental, 138, 145, 146
Brooker, Gary: on wrong-bass chords, 178, 180
Butler, David: on key perception, 31, 34
Cadence: on fourth downbeat, 3, 6, 19;
on odd-numbered downbeat, 6, 17, 19, 148, 163, 175;
as delineator of form, 6, 122, 124, 125;
on first downbeat, 14, 21, 131;
on even-numbered downbeat, 17, 162, 165;
open, consistency of, 20;
on third downbeat, 23–24, 146;
as indicator of key, 32, 34;
melody and harmony uncoordinated, 36, 56, 57–58, 59, 67, 177;
definition of, 53, 57, 71;
closed, defined, 54;
degree of finality of, 54;
open, defined, 54–55;
coordinated, 54, 55, 56, 62, 63, 71;
as punctuation, 54–55, 138;
traditional types, 54, 105;
variety of, 57, 58–59, 108, 146, 178–79;
significance of, 70;
Chant, Gregorian: influence on melodic style, 53;
verses in, 134
Chester, Andrew: on rock as cultural object, ix;
on analysis of rock, xi
Chicago: instrumental bridges in, 138
Chomsky, Noam, xii, xvi
Chorus: and overlap, 10;
repetition of, 14, 60;
defined, 124–25, 135–37;
and title line, 125;
vocal rhythm in, 129;
in strophic form, 139–40;
in roundedbinary form, 140
Chromaticism: in melody, 41;
in harmonic systems, 73, 74;
of augmented triad, 86;
in natural-minor system, 90;
in chromatic-minor system, 91;
in major system, 93, 180;
in harmony, 152, 165;
mentioned, 84, 155, 160
Chromatic-minor system: described, 90–93;
compared with major system, 95, 97;
compared with natural-minor system, 97;
minor tonic in, 97;
major tonic in, 99;
example, 105;
variant of, 154;
mentioned, 51, 150, 151, 155, 161, 180
Chromatic-second relationship, 48
Chromatic-third relationship: between keys, 48, 163, 179;
between chords, 176
Closed cadence: defined, 54;
as part of period, 55;
unnecessary in rock, 67, 69, 70;
as symbol of sincerity, 70;
as symbol of death, 70–71
Coda: plagal cadence in, 102;
in common practice, 113;
in strophic form, 139, 153
Common practice: theory, xv;
not uniform, xv, 101;
cadence patterns, 55;
major palette of, 94;
progressions in, 101–2;
frequency of chords in, 109;
historical development of, 118;
form, 122, 124;
Composers: awareness of standards, xvi, 117;
and conventions, 103;
choices of, 145;
profundity of, 157
Compound-binary form: defined, 141–42;
as break from tradition, 143;
example, 153
(p.247) Compound-ternary form, 169
Concept album, 157
Contrast: insufficient indicator of form, 122, 123;
harmonic, indicator of form, 131
Cyclical images, 119
Cyclical motion, 21, 27, 28, 69
Dahlhaus, Carl: on tonality, 34
Deceptive cadence: in common practice, 105, 115
Diatonic collection: defined, 38–39;
as ambiguous indicator of key, 48, 51;
example, 146;
and tritone, 222n14
Diatonic portion of major system, 93–94, 95, 150, 152, 180, 226n4
Diminished chord: rare in rock, 86;
as secondary dominant, 117
Distortion: and open-fifth chords, 50, 88;
of organ and drums, 169, 180
Dominant eleventh: in cadence, 61;
melodic possibilities with, 66–67;
defined, 87–88;
mentioned, 145–46, 168
Dominant harmony: at end of units, 20;
in open cadences, 59;
frequency in common practice, 102
Dominant ninth, 83
Dominant seventh: as indicator of key, 46, 222n15;
as tonic, 83;
with 9, 84;
on sixth scale degree, 90;
in chromatic-minor system, 91;
pervasiveness, 114;
as tonic, 116
Dominant thirteenth, 83
Dominant-tonic motion: between units, 20. See also Authentic cadence
Dorian scale, 37
Downbeats: relative accents of, 4–5
Drum patterns, 2, 83, 127–30
Elision model: defined, 17–18;
mentioned, 24, 99, 105
Emerson, Keith, 169, 175, 178, 180
England: musical influence of, 64–66;
Shakespeare on, 65
English folk song, xvii, 64, 66, 146
Even-numbered downbeat: as weak, 5;
Extension-overlap model: defined, 9–14;
compared to first-downbeat model, 14;
mentioned, 24, 25, 106, 156, 175
Fade-out, 21, 28, 49, 70, 72
Fifth: as indicator of key, 35, 37, 44
First-downbeat model: defined, 14–17;
mentioned, 25, 67, 150, 156
Flat VII. See Subtonic harmony
Folk song: English, xvii, 64, 66, 146;
cadences in, 3;
as primarily melodic, 3, 8;
distinguished from common-practice music, 181
Form: perception of, 60;
significance of, 121;
analysis of, 122;
ambiguity of, 122, 132–33, 168, 169, 170;
delineation of 124–33, 149, 170;
historical development of, 135–37, 141;
complexity of, 169
Four-measure standard, 3, 4, 5, 19, 22, 25, 175
Fourth: as indicator of key, 35, 37, 46, 51;
as key relationship, 48. See also Root movement
Fourth-downbeat cadence: resolution provided by, 56;
defined, 57;
examples, 58–59
Function. See Harmonic function
Gablik, Suzi: on progress, 26
German music: influence on tonality, 64–65, 181
Giddens, Anthony: on postmodernism, 26
Gordon, Christopher: on rock harmony, x, 110;
on rock as common practice, 101
(p.248) Gregorian chant. See Chant, Gregorian
Guitar techniques, 74, 77, 88, 133
Half cadence: in period, 55;
as anachronistic term, 60, 112;
as traditional type, 105;
traditional implications of, 111
Half-diminished seventh: as linear harmony, 96
Hamm, Charles: on song form, 225n6
Harmonic complexity, xii–xiii, 74, 101, 107, 112, 118, 163, 169, 178, 180
Harmonic function: of Neapolitan, 89–90;
traditional, 94;
as factor in succession, 101–2
Harmonic inversion, 78–79, 165
Harmonic simplicity, 84, 88, 164
Harmonic standard: as indicator of form, 131, 133
Harmonic succession: repeated, 22, 111–12, 125, 131, 139, 142, 149, 161, 163, 168;
rock vs. common practice, 103;
as indicator of form, 149
Harmonic system: described, 89–99;
and form, 97;
Harmony: as indicator of key, 32, 145;
historical conception, 61;
relation to melody, 61, 63, 67, 73, 74, 75;
common qualities, 74;
extended by thirds, 74;
historical development of, 74, 101, 103, 107, 118, 146–47;
simultaneous, 76–77;
importance of bass in, 78;
as indicator of form, 122, 124, 130–33, 145, 146, 221n10;
ambiguity of, 164;
chromatic, 165
Hexatonic collection: defined, 39–40;
compared to other collections, 43;
example, 146
Homophony, 75, 170, 180
Hypermeter: defined, 4–5;
and elision, 17;
and resolution, 56;
mentioned, 20, 131, 156, 175
Improvisation: meaning of, xvi;
as symbol of despair, 72;
during verse, 140;
mentioned, 153
Initiating harmony, 34, 35, 37, 40, 52, 221n10
Instrumental pattern: as delineator of units, 5;
in 2 + 2 model, 9, 147
Instrumentation: as indicator of form, 122, 124, 126, 168, 170, 175, 180;
in bridges, 138;
in strophic form, 139
Introduction: overlapped with resolution, 10, 60;
as fade-out, 72;
and instrumentation, 126;
function of, 127–28;
defined, 134;
nonsense syllables in, 134;
return of, 134;
in strophic form, 139, 153
Inversion: of harmony, 78–79, 165;
of tonic chord, 106
Ionian scale. See Major scale
IV. See Subdominant
IV-I. See Plagal cadence
Jackendoff, Ray: on hypermeter, 5
Keil, Charles: on analysis of rock, x
Key: perception of, 29, 44;
establishment of, 30–47 passim, 145, 153;
determination of, 30–32, 34–37, 151;
ambiguous, 32, 42, 46, 52, 151, 155, 161;
as interpretive scheme, 34, 51–52;
simultaneous, 47, 48–49, 161;
as indicator of form, 122, 124, 149, 170
Koch, Heinrich Christoph: on language and music, 54, 55
Kostka, Stefan: on rock harmony, x
Krumhansl, Carol L.: and key determination, 31–32
Lamm, Robert, 152, 157
Language: analogies with music, 53–55, (p.249) 64, 65, 111, 122, 125, 134, 138, 222n6, 225nn2,3
Leading tone: as chromatic note, 41;
rarity in rock, 43;
absent in V11, 61
Lennon, John: lyrics of, 157
Lerdahl, Fred: on hypermeter, 5
Lester, Joel: on hypermeter, 20
Linear harmony: augmented triad as, 86;
in the major system, 96
Listener: abilities of, xii, xiii, 24, 29, 31, 123, 125, 222n15. See also Perception
London, Justin: on rock harmony, 101
Longuet-Higgins, H. C.: and key determination, 30, 32
Lydian mode, 41, 179
Lyotard, Jean-François: on postmodernism, 26
Lyrics. See Text
Macan, Edward: on meaning of rock, xvi;
on progressive-rock harmony, 178
McCartney, Paul: on harmonic invention, xii–xiii
McDonald, Michael, 163
Major scale: as indicator of key, 30;
as diatonic collection, 39;
compared to hexatonic collection, 40;
mentioned, 3, 155, 179
Major seventh: as tonic harmony, 83
Major system; defined, 92–96;
diatonic portion of, 93–94, 95, 150, 152, 180, 226n4;
and linear harmony, 96;
compared with chromatic-minor system, 97;
major tonic in, 99;
example, 145
Major triad: as tonic harmony, 90, 99
Martin, George: on added-sixth chord, 85
Melodic motion, 2
Melodic rest: defined, 2;
filled by other melodies, 9;
standard length of, 17;
in 1 + 1 model, 19
Melodic-minor scale, 41
Melody: relation to harmony, 61, 63, 67, 73, 74, 75. See also Chant; Scale
Meter: determination, 2, 4, 127–28
Meyer, Leonard: on analysis, 144–45
Middleton, Richard: on analysis of rock, x, xiii
Minor mode: expressive effect of, 149
Minor scale: as indicator of key, 30
Minor seventh: as tonic harmony, 83
Minor triad: as tonic harmony, 89, 90, 97
Mixolydian scale: as diatonic collection, 39;
compared to hexatonic collection, 40;
no leading tone in, 43;
example, 44, 179;
and major system, 92
Modulation: similar to common practice, 47;
as formal delineator, 48;
correspondence to text, 150
Monophony: defined, 74. See also Chant, Gregorian
Motion-to-rest ratio, 2–10 passim
Nattiez, Jean-Jacques, xiii
Natural-minor scale: and chromatic-minor system, 51, 90;
and natural-minor system, 89, 90;
formed by chord roots, 153;
example, 179. See also Aeolian scale
Natural-minor system: defined, 88–90;
compared to chromatic-minor system, 90, 91, 97;
minor tonic in, 97;
example, 151
Neapolitan: and natural-minor system, 90;
and chromatic-minor system, 90, 92;
example, 105, 180;
instability of, 152
Nonsense syllables: in introduction, 134
Odd-numbered downbeat: as strong downbeat, 5;
as metrical impetus, 9, 62, 176;
after 1 + 1 model, 19, 163;
(p.250) Open cadence: defined, 54–55;
traditional function of, 55;
variety of, 57, 58–60;
frequent in rock, 57, 59;
function in rock, 60;
expressive effect of, 154. See also Half cadence
Open-fifth chord: as modally ambiguous, 50;
with distortion, 50, 88;
muted, 88;
as tonic harmony, 92
Overdubbing, 12, 126
Palette: defined, 74;
expands over rock history, 103, 106;
distinctiveness of in rock, 104;
as indicator of form, 149. See also Harmonic system
Parallel keys: examples, 48
Pedal point: as generator of new harmonic quality, 74, 77–78, 178;
example, 154
Pentatonic scale: defined, 37;
compared to other collections, 43;
at cadence, 67;
example, 167
Perception: of meter, 2, 4, 127–28;
of key, 29, 30, 44;
relation of theory to, 30;
as basis of theory, 31;
of form, 60, 121
Perfect fifth. See Fifth
Perfect fourth. See Fourth
Period: defined, 55;
not necessary in rock, 60, 111–12, 125;
in common practice, 111;
as basic form, 121, 125;
in language, 222n6. See also Antiperiodic structure
Persistently initiating harmony. See Initiating harmony
Phrase: melodic vs. metrical, 5, 7, 67;
vocal, delayed, 11, 62
Phrase length: determination, 2, 3, 7, 19;
four measures as standard, 3, 4, 5, 19, 22, 25, 175
Pickup: and phrase length, 7
Pielke, Robert: on academic recognition of rock, ix
Piston, Walter: on plagal cadence, 102;
on progression, 111
Pitch collection. See Pitch source
Pitch source: as indicator of key, 32, 37, 44, 165;
harmonic, different from melodic, 221n11. See also Scale
Plagal cadence: in blues pattern, 33, 103;
common in rock, 61;
melodic possibilities with, 66;
in codas, 102, 105–6, 113;
as traditional type, 105;
nonprogressiveness of, 120;
example, 178
Polyphony: defined, 74;
mentioned, 61, 169, 180
Postmodernism, 25–28
Preparation: not required of stable pitch, 75;
absence of, 77;
of suspended chord, 88
Progress: as modern conception, 25–27;
unnecessary in rock, 67;
as reflected in harmony, 118
Progression: defined, 101;
chart, 102;
not applicable to rock, 117, 118–20;
historical development of, 118
Progressive rock, 169, 178, 180, 181
Rameau, Jean-Philippe, 102
Ratio of motion to rest. See Motion-to-rest ratio
Recording: as definitive artifact, xv;
techniques, 12, 126, 169
Refrain: defined, 124–25, 135;
and title line, 125;
at end of section, 125;
in rounded-binary form, 140
Relative keys: standard modulation involving, 48;
closeness of, 49;
example, 107, 150, 163
Repeated harmonic succession, 22, 111–12, 125, 131, 139, 142, 149, 161, 163, 168
Research: defined, xii
Resolution: structural, 19, 148, 156, 162;
harmonic vs. metrical, 20;
coordinated, 55–56, 163, 175;
traditional timing of, 56, 64;
coordination not necessary in rock, 56, 59, 72, 111;
melodic vs. harmonic, 59;
on firstdownbeat, 59–60, 62, 70, 131;
not required of stable pitch, 75;
of suspended (p.251) chord, 88;
as basis of progression, 118;
harmonic root as, 118, 119;
after stop time, 127;
tonic harmony as, 146;
unusual metrical placement of, 17. See also Cadence
Retrogression: defined, 101;
in blues pattern, 103;
as rock standard, 107;
in rock succession, 111
Reynolds, William H.: on nonprogressive successions, 119
Rhythm: as indicator of form, 122, 124, 126–30;
ambiguity of, 127. See also Beat; Meter; Phrase length; Stop time; Syncopation
Rock: acceptance as academic subject, ix;
as cultural object, ix, x, xii, 148;
traditional musicological approaches, x–xii, 169;
prior analyses, x, xiii;
misunderstandings about, x, xiii, xiv, xv, 100, 110, 117–18, 224n1;
opposed to common practice, x, xv, 6, 21, 28, 30, 32, 39, 43, 56, 75, 90, 95, 100, 103–4, 110, 111, 114, 117, 118, 122, 124, 125, 180–81;
as distinct style, x, xvi, 143, 148, 181;
reshaping common practice, x, 1, 6, 35, 47, 73–74, 101, 103, 107, 109, 115, 131, 141, 146;
composition, xii, xvi;
definition, xiv;
as aural tradition, xv, 2;
meaning, xvi–xvii;
primacy of beat in, 5, 8–9, 28, 126;
beginning orientation of, 21, 26, 28, 59, 62;
relation to traditional styles, 61, 64, 134, 135–37, 142–43, 175, 180–81;
as homophonic, 75;
closure unnecessary in, 152
Rondeau: compared to verse-chorusbridge form, 143
Root: anticipated in previous harmony, xvii, 65, 119;
as goal of progression, 118, 119
Root movement: descending fourth, xvii, 45, 104, 107, 114, 118, 131, 149;
descending second, 45, 104, 105, 107, 114, 116, 146, 147, 180;
as basis of succession, 102;
traditional standard, 102, 180;
rock standard, 104, 106–7, 115, 147, 149, 150, 180;
ascending third, 105, 106, 107, 114, 116, 118, 119, 146, 149, 180
Root position, 55, 78, 164
Rothstein, William: on hypermeter, 5;
on overlap, 10;
on elision, 17
Rounded-binary form: and choruses, 136–37;
defined, 140;
compared to verse-chorus-bridge form, 140;
within compound-binary form, 142;
link with tradition, 142–43
Scale: defined, 37;
as indicator of key, 179;
different from harmonic pitch source, 221n11
. See also Aeolian scale; Dorian scale; Hexatonic collection; Major scale; Melodic-minor scale; Minor scale; Mixolydian scale; Natural-minor scale; Pentatonic scale
Schoenberg, Arnold: and tonal suggestions, 32
Secondary dominant: not traditionally resolved, 46, 145;
as cadential chord, 59, 146;
names of, 95, 224, 225n15;
in rock, 114–17;
traditional function, 114, 115, 116;
expressive effect of, 162
Set theory, 221n12
Shakespeare, William: on England, 65
Sheik, Duncan, 148, 151
Shuker, Roy: on analysis of rock, xi–xii
Simultaneous keys, 47, 48–49, 161
Sorce, Richard: on rock harmony, 101
Split-third chord: defined, 84
Stable scale degree, 52, 75, 79–82, 146, 153
Steedman, M. J.: and key determination, 30, 32
Stop time, 126–27
Strong downbeat: standard position for rock cadence, 6, 146;
Strophic form: example, 105, 153, 175;
period in, 111, 139–40;
compared to verse-chorus-bridge form, 140;
link with tradition, 142;
binary, 163
Subdominant: emphasis on, 113–14, 147. See also Plagal cadence
Subtonic harmony: and major system, 93;
example, 105, 108, 110;
as indicator of modulation, 132;
as idiomatic in rock, 104, 150;
as chromatic chord, 152;
instability of, 152;
in cadence, 178;
defined, 222n16, 223n6
Subtonic pitch, 43
Succession, harmonic: misunderstandings about, 100–101;
traditional standard, 100–102;
rock standard, 100–120;
as indicator of form, 108
Sum tones, 50
Supersection: defined, 142,
example, 153, 156
Suspended harmony, 88–89, 164
Syncopation: and phrase length, 7;
in cadences, 57;
in introductions, 127–28;
example, 156;
expressive effect of, 165–67;
defined, 226, 227n8
Ternary form, 121
Text: reflected in music, 20–21, 25, 26–27, 42, 60, 70, 80, 82, 114, 119–20, 125, 129, 131, 138, 149, 150–51, 152, 154–57, 159–63, 168, 178, 180;
as indicator of form, 122, 124–26, 134, 135, 145, 149
Theory: as model of perception, 222n15
Third: as basic of harmony, 85, 87. See also Chromatic-third relationship;Root movement
Third-downbeat cadence, 71, 148. See also 2 + 2 model
Title line: in first-downbeat model, 17;
in refrain or chorus, 125;
as indicator of form, 125, 145, 168;
in roundedbinary form, 137;
in strophic form, 139
Tone system, melodic. See Scale
Tone system, harmonic: as product of harmony, 73. See also Chromatic-minor system; Major system; Natural-minor system
Tonic harmony: at beginning of unit, 5, 20, 22–23, 34, 35, 41, 45, 56, 59, 61, 62, 70, 104, 112, 124, 153, 162;
as first chord of piece, 35, 37, 47, 52, 221n10;
and pentatonic scale, 38;
and hexatonic collection, 40;
as determinant of mode, 42, 50, 91;
not present, 46;
in closed cadence, 54;
in open cadence, 59;
triad as, 82, 116;
dominant ninth as, 83;
dominant thirteenth as, 83;
major seventh as, 83;
minor seventh as, 83;
dominant seventh as, 83, 116;
added-second chord as, 85;
minor triad as, 89, 90, 97;
in chromatic-minor system, 90;
major triad as, 90, 99;
as insertion, 102;
at beginning of progression, 102, 104;
at beginning of section, 132, 153
Tonic pitch: as final note, 36
Transcription: difficulties of, xv, 2, 22
Transformation, rhythmic: of cadences, 63
Triad: as tonic, 82, 89, 90, 97, 99, 116;
basic to rock practice, 82–83, 164
Tritone: in major scale, 43;
between roots, 91, 176, 179;
in dissonant chords, 153;
between keys, 179;
in diatonic collection, 222n14
Turek, Ralph: on language and music, 54
Unit. See Phrase; Hypermeter
Verse: defined, 134;
in strophic form, (p.253) 139, 140;
in rounded-binary form, 140;
instrumental, 140
Verse-chorus-bridge form: defined, 140–41;
as break from tradition, 143;
example, 145, 149
Walser, Robert: on analysis of rock, x
Waters, Roger, 157, 159, 163
Weak downbeat: traditional cadence placement on, 6, 177;
Weber, Gottfried, 102
White, Gary: on rock progression, 100–101
Wilson, Brian, 145