This chapter studies the status of Moscow after the Bolsheviks evacuated European Petrograd for the ancient Russian capital of Muscovy in March 1918, which led to the Moscow Kremlin assuming an almost mystical status for socialists all over the world. Inside its stone walls were Lenin's embattled communist regime—holed up as if in hiding from its many domestic and foreign enemies, while the war raged on outside the Kremlin's confines. There was the first armed White resistance to Red rule, launched by the generals Alekseev and Kornilov in the Don Cossack region in winter of 1917–18; the revolt of the Czechoslovak Legion along the trans-Siberian railway in summer of 1918; the establishment of two anti-Bolshevik armies in the east, headquartered at Samara and Omsk, in Siberia; and the Polish invasion of White Russia in the west, launched in April 1920.
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