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Walt Whitman and the Culture of American Celebrity$

David Blake

Print publication date: 2006

Print ISBN-13: 9780300110173

Published to Yale Scholarship Online: October 2013

DOI: 10.12987/yale/9780300110173.001.0001

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(p.241) Index

(p.241) Index

Source:
Walt Whitman and the Culture of American Celebrity
Publisher:
Yale University Press

Page numbers in italic indicate illustrations.

Abolitionism, 72, 148
Adair, Douglass, 31, 32
Adams, Bluford, 135
Adams, John, 31, 32, 46, 50, 199
Advertising, 18–19;
Barnum's use of, 105–6, 107–8, 112, 130–31, 215;
as discourse, 130–31;
forms of, 103;
of lectures, 122–24;
in newspapers, 103–5, 107, 116–17;
of patent medicines, 107, 109, 127–30;
rhetorical devices in, 117–18;
rhyme in, 118–19, 120;
Whitman's self-advertisement, 103, 113–15, 135, 201;
Whitman's use of rhetoric of, 120–22, 129–30, 133–34. See also Publicity
Advertising agencies, 24, 104
Age of Reason, The (Paine), 78
Alboni, Marietta, 43
Alcott, William, 36
“Ambition” (Whitman), 53
American Female Poets, The (May), 29
American Museum, 48, 105, 112
American Phrenological Journal, 113
American Press Association, 210
American Revolution, 31, 78
“American Scholar, The” (Emerson), 145
“Among the Multitude” (Calamus 41), 171–72
Anderson, Benedict, 24
Anderson, Quentin, 134
Apostrophe, in Leaves of Grass, 86–87
Appleton's, 205
Archaeological lectures, 123
“Are You the New Person Drawn to Me?” (Calamus 12), 165
“Art of Money Getting, The” (Barnum), 135
“As I Ebb'd with the Ocean of Life” (Bardic Symbols; Whitman), 162–63
Aspiz, Harold, 177
Astor Place riot, 25
Athenaeum, 204
Atlantic, 39, 72, 162–63
Audubon, John James, 74
Authorship, and celebrity, 28–30, 37–38, 39, 43, 70–75, 142, 214–15
Autobiographical self, 152–57
Autobiographies, 44, 46, 142
Autograph collecting, 42
Autopsy and medical report, on Whitman, 139, 140, 164
(p.242) Autumn Hours and Fireside Reading (Kirkland), 94
“Backward Glance O'er Travel'd Roads, A” (Whitman), 67, 198–99, 203
Baker, Thomas N., 29–30, 151, 168
Barbauld, Anna Letitia, 29
“Bardic Symbols” (Whitman), 162–63
Barlow, Joel, 7
Barnum, P. T., 41, 65, 86, 135;
autobiographies of, 44, 105;
Jenny Lind promotion, 30, 153;
as model for Whitman's self-promotion, 4;
operational aesthetic of, 15;
promotional strategies of, 105–6, 107–8, 112, 130–31, 215;
sensationalized people of, 48;
Tom Thumb, 24, 30, 48, 49;
Uncle Tom's Cabin production of, 57
Baudrillard, Jean, 199
Beecher, Henry Ward, 17, 36, 43–44
Belfrey of Bruges, The (Longfellow), 73
Benjamin, Park, 109–10
Bennett, James Gordon, 24, 70
Bercovitch, Sacvan, 206
Berger, John, 131
Bigelow Papers, The (Lowell), 72
Biographies and autobiographies, 44, 46, 142, 154
Blithedale Romance, The (Hawthorne), 34–35, 37, 38;
Veiled Lady, 35, 37, 38, 40
Bode, Carl, 33
Bolton, England, 140
Bolton Whitman Fellowship, 140
Bonner, Robert, 24, 38, 39, 104–5, 117, 150
Book publishing: celebrity authorship and, 37–38;
celebrity exposés, 154;
growth of, 38;
of memoirs and biographies, 44, 46, 142;
publicity and promotion in, 109–10, 142
Book tours, 198
Booth, Junius Brutus, 23, 56
“Boston Ballad, A” (Whitman), 182
Boswell, James, 44
Bowery theater, 23, 56
Bradstreet, Anne, 29
Brady, Mathew, 1, 41, 65
Braudy, Leo, 16, 17, 19, 27, 41, 160, 162, 200
Brerewood, Edward, 27
Briggs, Peter, 28, 85–86
Broadway, 147
Broadway galleries, 41–42
“Broadway Pageant, A” (Whitman), 87
Brodhead, Richard, 37–38, 70
Brook Farm, 34
Brooklyn, New York: Andrew Jackson in, 181;
lyceum lectures in, 127;
patent medicine industry in, 128–29
Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 44, 46, 71, 72, 73, 104, 106, 119, 127, 129, 148
Brooklyn Daily Times, 113, 179
Brooklyn Evening Sun, 41
Brooklyn Institute, 124
Bryant, William Cullen, 71
Buchanan, James, 183, 185
Buchanan, Robert, 204, 205, 206, 208
Bucke, R. M., 13, 138
Buell, Lawrence, 120
Bull, Ole, 168
Bureau of Indian Affairs, Whitman's dismissal from, 88, 186, 199, 203
Burke, Edmund, 80, 83
Burr, Aaron, 31
Burroughs, John, 147, 149, 208
Butterfly drawing 1860 Leaves of Grass, 6–7
Butterfly photograph, 2;
authenticity of, 1, 3, 14–15;
cardboard butterfly prop, 3, 8, 9, 10, 14, 15;
distribution of, 11;
origins of, 3;
promotional purpose of, 10–12, 18;
scholarly interest in, 14;
spiritual purpose of, 8
“By Blue Ontario's Shore” (Whitman), 60, 87, 115, 149
Byron, Lord, 28–29, 56, 64, 163
Calamus poems (Whitman): calamus plant as symbol, 159;
confessional mode in, 163–64;
disillusionment expressed in, 179–80;
eroticized relationship with reader, 169–73;
exposure and concealment in, 157–60, 164;
poet's persona in, 142–43, 164–65, 170;
politicization of, 158;
promotion of intimacy in, 165–66;
rejection of fame, 160–61
Calamus 3 (“Whoever You Are Now Holding Me in Hand”), 157, 165, 166, 167
Calamus 10 (“Recorders Ages Hence”), 161
(p.243) Calamus 11 (“When I Heard at the Close of the Day”), 160–61, 170
Calamus 12 (“Are You the New Person Drawn to Me?”), 165
Calamus 15 (“Trickle Drops”), 163–64
Calamus 16 (“Who Is Now Reading This?”), 165
Calamus 22 (“To a Stranger”), 170
Calamus 28 (“When I Peruse the Conquer'd Fame”), 160
Calamus 29 (“A Glimpse”), 169–70
Calamus 40 (“That Shadow My Likeness”), 163
Calamus 41 (“Among the Multitude”), 171–72
Calhoun, John, 41
Camden, New Jersey, 11–12, 21–22, 177, 190, 196
Campaigns. See Publicity campaigns
Carnegie, Andrew, 191, 208
Carte de visite craze, 197
Cayton, Mary, 29, 37, 43
Celebrities of the Century, 5
Celebrity: authorship, 28–30, 37–38, 39, 43, 70–75, 142, 214–15;
as collaborative identity, 18, 63, 85–97, 209–10;
cultural decline and, 195;
defined, 27;
democracy and, 20, 29–30, 51, 87, 212;
endorsements, 43–44, 85;
fabricated, 15–16;
vs. fame, 6;
fans and (see Fans);
illusory values of, 48–54;
immortality and, 50–51, 92, 175, 212;
intertextuality and, 113;
intimacy and (see Intimacy);
invasion of privacy and, 40, 43;
lecturers, 35–37, 46–47, 152–53, 195;
origins of, 27–34;
political, 195–96;
vs. popularity, 32;
press promotion of, 39–40, 70;
representative function of, 54–58, 79–85;
Republican vision of, 18, 30–34;
social identity and, 194–95;
Whitman's distrust of, 53–54;
Whitman's experience of, 5, 21–22, 202, 210–11;
Whitman's repudiation of, 160–63, 196;
Whitman's vision of, 5–6, 22–23, 136–37, 215
Celebrity and Power (Marshall), 63
Celebrity culture: commodification of personality and, 40–47, 197–98;
emergence of, 16, 23–24;
European, 27–28;
illusion of intimacy, 144–45;
intimate knowledge in, 152;
social identity and, 214–15;
star system and, 194–98;
trans-Atlantic nature of, 29–30;
upward mobility in, 214
Certeau, Michel de, 169
Chicago Daily Democratic Press, 103–4
Child, Lydia Maria, 148
Christian Spiritualist, 147
Cincinnati Daily Commercial, 157
Cincinnati Gazette, 43
Civic evangelism, 7, 96, 130, 131–32
Civil War lectures, 123
Clapp, Henry, 61, 154
Clare, Ada, 61
Clay, Henry, 55
Coates, Henry T., 94
Colomina, Beatriz, 141–42
Colton's General Atlas, 43
Columbiad, The (Barlow), 7
“Come Up from the Fields Father” (Whitman), 74
Common Sense (Paine), 79–80, 83
Concert Singer, The (Eakins), 190
Confessional mode, in Calamus poems, 163–64
Confessions (Rousseau), 28, 44
Consumer capitalism, 133
Cook, Weda, 190
Cooper Institute, 122
Courtship of Miles Standish, The (Longfellow), 73
Craigie House, Cambridge, Mass., 73
Critic, 3, 201
“Crossing Brooklyn Ferry” (Whitman), 17, 92, 151, 152, 200
Cummins, Maria, 38, 43
Cushman, Charlotte, 41
Daguerreotypes, 41, 43, 69, 117, 142
Davidson, Michael, 10
Davis, Mary, 21
“Death of the Lion, The” (James), 42, 214–15
Democracy: celebrity and, 20, 29–30, 51, 87, 212;
elections and, 176–77;
Jacksonian, 67, 181–82;
lecture system and, 47;
perverted by star system, 195–96;
popular sovereignty and, 82–83
(p.244) Democratic individualism, 66, 67, 77, 102
Democratic nationalism, 23, 47, 107, 108, 110
Democratic Vistas (Whitman), 205–8, 213
Department of the Interior, Whitman's dismissal from, 88, 186, 199, 203
Derrida, Jacques, 136
Dickens, Charles, 30, 178
Dickinson, Emily, 16, 156;
on celebrity, 45, 49–50;
distrust of publicity, 51–53, 101;
on immortality, 50–51, 54
Disraeli, Benjamin, 175
Domestic Manners of the Americans (Trollope), 29
Donaldson, Thomas, 3
Douglass, Frederick, 149
Dreiser, Theodore, 214
Drum Taps (Whitman), 101, 147, 185
Dwight, Timothy, 7
Eagle Street College, 140
Eakins, Thomas, 21, 190
Edgeworth, Maria, 94
Edinburgh Review, 174
Effeminacy, threat of, 206
“Eighteenth Presidency!, The” (Whitman), 183–84
Elections and electioneering: as model for publicity campaign, 177–78;
Whitman on, 176–77
Eliot, T. S., 184–85
Elmer, Jonathan, 58
Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 15, 22, 35, 36, 38, 60, 122, 134, 145, 175;
on celebrity, 29;
celebrity of, 37, 43;
endorsement of Leaves of Grass, 85, 113, 179, 187;
on representation and popularity, 80–82
English Traits (Emerson), 29
Enquiries Touching the Diversity of Languages and Religion (Brerewood), 27
Erkkila, Betsy, 102, 158
Evangeline (Longfellow), 72, 73
Everett, Edward, 150
“Excelsior” (Longfellow), 72
Fable for Critics, A (Lowell), 72
“Faces” (Whitman), 68
Failure, romantic embrace of, 200
Fame. See Celebrity
“Fame's Vanity” (Whitman), 53–54
Fans: as cultural producers, 169;
emotional identification of, 151, 167–69;
in eroticized relationship, 169–73;
illusion of intimacy, 19, 144;
intimate knowledge and, 152;
in parasocial relationship, 168;
Whitmaniacs, 139, 140, 167;
Whitman's promotion of intimacy, 165–66
Federalist Papers, The, 106;
No. 10, 125;
No. 72, 31
Female authorship, 37–38
Fern, Fanny, 17, 65;
autobiography in work of, 44, 142;
celebrity of, 39;
sales of, 38, 70, 154;
sympathy of, 150–51
Fields, James, 119
Fillmore, Millard, 71, 183, 185
Fireside Companion, The, 94
Fireside Encyclopedia of Poetry, The, 94
Fireside imagery, 93–94, 95
Fireside Library, The, 94
Fireside Poetical Readings (Dexter), 94
Fireside poets, 74, 94–95
Fireside Story Book (Edgeworth), 94
Fireside Travels (Lowell), 94
Folsom, Ed, 217n, 218n, 227n
Forrest, Edwin, 23, 25, 26, 40, 41, 56, 152, 195
“For You O Democracy” (Whitman), 158
Foss, Sam Walter, 98, 100
Fourier, Charles, 35
Fowler, Orson, 36
Francis, Sean, 120
Franck, Georg, 70
Frankenstein (M. Shelley), 29
Franklin Evans (Whitman), 18, 70, 109–11
French Revolution, 31, 79, 80
Galaxy, 147, 153
Gallery of Illustrious Americans (Brady), 41
Gamson, Joshua, 15
Gilchrist, Anne, 166–70, 171, 172
Gilder, R. W., 202
Gliddon, George, 123
“Glimpse, A” (Calamus 29), 169–70
Globe Advertising Agency, 104
“Going Somewhere” (Whitman), 172
Goldsmith, Oliver, 32
(p.245) Good Gray Poet, The (O'Connor), 88, 186–87
Graham, Sylvester, 36
Graham's, 39, 64, 115
Grant, Ulysses S., 177, 195
Greeley, Horace, 24, 36, 41, 56, 154
Greenfield Hill (Dwight), 7
Greenspan, Ezra, 39, 104–5, 116, 161, 163
Grimke, Angelina, 148
Grossman, Jay, 18
Gruesz, Kirsten Silva, 94
Habermas, Jurgen, 106, 111
Halleck, Fitz-Greene, 71
Hamilton, Alexander, 31, 50
Harlan, James, 186, 187
Harned, Thomas, 138
Harper's, 35, 36, 39, 42, 154
Harris, Neil, 15
Hawthorne, Nathaniel, 16, 34–35, 37, 38, 40–41. See also Blithedale Romance, The
Hay, John, 191
“Here the Frailest Leaves of Me” (Whitman), 143
Heth, Joice, 108, 112
Holbrook, Josiah, 32
Holland, J. G., 195–96
Hollis, C. Carroll, 124
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 36, 122
Home Journal, 153
Hosmer, Harriet, 41
Human-interest journalism, 143–44
Hutchinson Family Singers, 47, 86, 124
Hyperion (Longfellow), 73
Immortality, 50–51, 92, 175, 212
Imperial self, 134
Imprints (Whitman), 112–13
Individualism: democratic, 66, 67, 77, 102;
romantic, 18
“In Paths Untrodden” (Whitman), 159–60
In Re Walt Whitman, 138–41
Interior Department, Whitman's dismissal from, 88, 186, 199, 203
Intimacy: biographical, 152–57;
of Calamus poems (see Calamus poems);
of commemorative book, 139–40;
fans and, 140, 152;
in human-interest journalism, 143–44;
illusion of, 19, 144–45, 146, 164;
publicity and, 141–42, 152, 158;
sympathy and, 145–52
Intimate Strangers (Schickel), 19, 151
Irving, Washington, 71
Jackson, Andrew, 181
James, Henry, 5, 42, 70–71, 101, 108, 134, 214–15
Jefferson, Thomas, 31, 32
Jenkins, Harry, 169
Jeremiad, 20, 205–6
Johnson, Samuel, 27
Justus, James H., 93
Kaplan, Justin, 61
Keats, John, 51, 54, 161
Keller, Elizabeth, 3
Kennedy, William, 138–39, 140, 141, 164, 187, 199
Kinetoscope parlors, 215
King, Dexter, 94
Kirkland, C. M., 94
Klammer, Martin, 149, 150
Lacan, Jacques, 170
Lakier, Aleksandr, 121
Lamplighter, The (Cummins), 38, 43
Larson, Kerry, 184
Lawrence, D. H., 147
Lears, Jackson, 48, 142
Leaves from Fanny's Portfolio (Fern), 70
Leaves of Grass (Whitman): address to readers, 86–87, 93, 111, 165, 169;
advertising rhetoric in, 120–22, 129–30, 131–36;
apostrophe in, 86–87;
autobiography in, 154–57;
Emerson's endorsement of, 85, 113, 179, 187;
evangelical mode of, 7–8;
identity of readers, 92, 95–97;
new poetics of, 74–77;
oratorical style in, 124–26;
outdoor settings in, 94–95;
personal metamorphoses in, 7;
poet's persona in, 66–67, 87–91;
presidency as model in, 181–84;
reviews of, 112–13, 161;
rhetoric of intimacy in, 142–43;
sales of, 114;
self-promotion as theme and symbol in, 6, 102–3;
selfpromotion of, 98–101, 108, 112, 113–15, 178–79, 187, 196–97, 209–10, 211;
(p.246) self-reviews of, 113–15, 179;
sympathy in, 149;
Whitman's disillusionment with, 179. See also Butterfly photograph; Calamus poems; specific poems
Leaves of Grass, editions of: 1855, 59, 68, 75, 84, 95, 102, 108, 120, 153;
1856, 42, 84, 85, 113, 148;
1860, 6, 7, 112–13, 147, 152, 157, 162;
1867, 167;
1876 (“centennial edition”), 108, 204, 205, 208;
1889 (“birthday edition”), 1, 5
Lectures: advertising of, 122–24;
celebritybased, 35–37, 46–47, 152–53, 195;
collective cultural consciousness and, 56–57;
itinerant lecturers, 123;
Lowell's lecture tour, 72;
lyceum series, 32–33, 35–36, 46–47, 122–23;
Whitman's Lincoln lectures, 188, 189, 190–94, 192
Letters from Paumanok (Whitman), 71
Levine, Lawrence, 83
Library of Congress, cardboard butterfly in, 3, 8, 14
Life Illustrated, 85, 104
Life of P. T. Barnum, The, 105
Lincoln, Abraham, 47, 71;
legend of Whitman's connection to, 187;
“O Captain, My Captain,” 185, 188, 192, 193;
Whitman's identification with, 20, 85, 108, 184–88;
Whitman's lectures on, 188, 189, 190–94, 192
Lind, Jenny, 17, 30, 37, 40, 41, 44, 45, 55, 152, 153–54, 165
“Lionizing” (Poe), 48–49
Literary establishment: effeminacy critique of, 206;
neglect charge against, 202–5, 210;
public identified with, 207–8, 213
Lithographs, 41
“Live Oak, with Moss” sequence, 158–59, 165
London, Jack, 162
London Daily News, 204
Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, 5, 150;
comparison with Whitman, 74–75;
fireside imagery of, 93, 94, 95;
popular audience of, 72–74;
rhyme of, 119;
Whitman on, 74, 76
Long Island Democrat, 53
Loving, Jerome, 164n, 219n, 237n, 239n
Lowell, James Russell: celebrity of, 71, 72;
fireside imagery of, 93–94;
at Lincoln lectures, 191
Lowell Institute, 72
Lyceum lectures and series, 32–33, 35–36, 46–47, 122–23
Lyrical Ballads (Wordsworth), 116
Macready, James, 25, 55
Madison, Dolly, 74
Madison, James, 55, 92, 125
Madison Square Theatre, Lincoln lectures at, 191–93, 194
Magazines. See Press
Mann, Horace, 35
“Man That Was Used Up, The” (Poe), 57–58
Marshall, P. David, 17, 63, 113
Martí, José, 191
May, Caroline, 29
McDayter, Ghislaine, 64
Melville, Herman, 25, 200
Memoirs, celebrity, 44, 46
Mermaid hoax, Barnum's, 112
Mickle Street, Camden, N.J., 11, 21–22, 190, 212
Model of contagion, 93
Moon, Michael, 170–71
Morgan, Edmund S., 91–92
Moulton, William, 154
Mulcaire, Terry, 159
“Napoleon: or, The Man of the World” (Emerson), 80–81
Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave (Douglass), 149
Nathanson, Tenny, 87, 161
Nation, The, 101, 215
Nationalism: celebratory vision of, 7;
democratic, 23, 47, 107, 108, 110;
popular culture and, 22–23
National Miniature Gallery, 107
Newbury, Michael, 40, 152, 169
New England, 210
New Historicism, 13
Newspapers. See Press
New York Aurora, 69, 110
New York Daily Times, 107
New York Evening Post, 71, 193, 194
(p.247) New York Fireside Companion, The, 94
New York Herald, 70, 117, 208
New York Herald Tribune, 56
New York Ledger, 38, 39, 104, 117, 150
New York Saturday Press, 154
New York Times, 101–2, 106, 124, 147, 191, 192–93
New York Tribune, 39, 204, 205
Nickelodeon theaters, 215
North American Review, 72
North British Review, 42
November Boughs (Whitman), 23, 24
Nussbaum, Martha, 149, 150
“O Captain, My Captain” (Whitman), 185, 188, 190, 192, 193
O'Connor, William Douglas, 88–89, 186–87, 208
“Old Granite State, The” (Hutchinson Family), 47
“On Emerson and the New England Set” (Whitman), 81–82
“One's Self I Sing” (Whitman), 67
Operational aesthetic, 15
Oratorical style, 124–26
“Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking” (Whitman), 61, 154–57
Ovid, 31
Packer, Barbara, 71
Paine, Thomas, 18, 77–80, 83–84, 92
Palmer, Volney, 104
Pannapacker, William, 72, 191, 199
Parton, James, 154
Patent medicine advertising, 107, 109, 127–30
Patriotism, advertising appeals to, 107–8
“Paul Revere's Ride” (Longfellow), 73
Pencillings By the Way (Willis), 30
Penley, Constance, 169
Penny press, 47, 56, 70, 104
Personality: commodification of, 40–47, 197–98;
cult of, 28–29;
lecturer's, 153;
performer's, 63;
poet's persona, 66–67, 87–91;
Whitman's sense of, 64–70, 211
Pfaff's saloon, 61–63
Philadelphia Art Club, Lincoln lecture at, 193, 194
Photography: portraits, 41–42;
“Portraits of Life from Walt Whitman,” 198;
promotional purpose of, 4, 10–11, 12. See also Butterfly photograph
Phrenology, 43
Pierce, Franklin, 38
Pittsfield Sun, 64, 127
Poe, Edgar Allan, 16, 48–49, 57–58, 201
“Poem of Joys” (Whitman), 66–67
“Poem of You, Whoever You Are” (Whitman), 145–47
Poems: Second Series (Lowell), 72
Poetry: cultural legitimacy of, 175–76;
fireside imagery, 93–94, 95;
Fireside poets, 74, 94–95;
popular acceptance of, 70–74;
rhyme in, 118–20;
Whitman's new poetics, 74–77
“Poet's Calendar, The” (Longfellow), 93
“Poets to Come” (Whitman), 92
Ponce de Leon, Charles L., 143–44, 165
Popular culture: celebrity values in, 49;
cultural decay and, 207–8;
growth of, 22–27;
personalities in, 64–65
Popularity: vs. fame, 32;
neglect theme in Whitman's publicity, 198–211;
representation and, 79–85. See also Celebrity
Popular sovereignty, 77, 82–83, 92
“Portraits of Life from Walt Whitman,” 198
Preface to Leaves of Grass, 1855 (Whitman), 59, 60, 68, 75, 95, 102, 111, 114, 120, 148, 178, 182, 199
Presidency, Whitman and: campaign against antidemocratic drift, 179, 182–84;
on elections, 177;
Jacksonian model, 181–82. See also Lincoln, Abraham
Press: advertising in, 103–5, 107, 116–17;
celebrity columns in, 150;
celebrity promotion in, 39–40, 70;
expansion of, 38–39;
human-interest journalism, 143–44;
penny, 47, 56, 70, 104;
personality and anecdote in, 42–43, 64;
Whitman on journalist's profession, 111
Price, Helen, 157
Price, Kenneth M., 218–19n, 236n
Printer's Ink, 105
Privacy, 14, 40, 43
Proverbial Philosophy (Tupper), 70–71
(p.248) “Psalm of Life, A” (Longfellow), 72
Publicity: address to readers and, 16, 93, 103;
in book publishing, 109–10, 142;
as civic education, 212;
in domestic sphere, 141–42;
growth of, 38–39;
intimacy and, 93, 141–45, 152, 158;
manipulative, 134, 136;
multiple definitions of, 106–7;
patriotism linked to, 107–8;
photography and, 3–4, 10–11, 12;
redefinition for commercial purposes, 106;
vision of celebrity and, 99, 108;
Whitman's self-reviews, 113–15, 135. See also Advertising
Publicity campaigns: corporate identity in, 209–10;
against cultural decay, 205–8;
defined, 19, 178;
electioneering model for, 177–78;
for Leaves of Grass, 98–101, 108, 112, 113–15, 178–79, 187, 196–97, 209, 211 (see also Butterfly portrait);
Lincoln identification in, 184–94;
Lincoln lectures, 188, 189, 190–94, 192;
neglect theme in, 19–20, 198–211;
against presidency, 179, 181–84;
West Jersey Press affair, 202–5, 206, 208–9;
Whitman's vision of, 198
Public opinion: and celebrity, 56, 60–63;
Constitution's framers and, 111–12;
Derrida on, 136;
manipulation of, 100;
representative individuals and, 77, 79–85;
Tocqueville on, 112;
in Whitman's poetics, 76–77, 83, 84–85, 86–87
Putnam's, 36, 39, 47, 56
Radical, 167
Railton, Stephen, 68–69
“Recorders Ages Hence” (Calamus 10), 161
Redpath, James, 153
Reflections on the Revolution in France (Burke), 80
Representative function of celebrity, 55–58, 79–85
Republicanism: civic evangelism and, 7;
of lyceum lectures, 33–34;
Paine on, 79;
public opinion and, 111–12;
vision of fame, 18, 30–32, 50, 77
Republican representative, 125
Reynolds, David, 13, 47, 48, 158
Rhyme: in advertisements, 118–19, 120;
Whitman's attitude toward, 119–20
Rights of Man (Paine), 79, 83–84, 92
Robertson, Michael, 218n, 233n, 236n
Root's Daguerreotype Gallery, 117
Rossetti, William Michael, 167, 204, 205
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 28, 44
Rowell, George P., 106
Rush, Benjamin, 31, 109, 199
Ruth Hall (Fern), 38, 44, 142, 151
Salem lyceum, 33, 34, 35
Salmon, Richard, 6
“Salut au Monde!” (Whitman), 86
San Francisco Chronicle, 208–9
Saturday Press, 61, 157
Saturday Review, 205
Scarlet Letter, The (Hawthorne), 37
Schickel, Richard, 17, 19, 144, 151
Scholnick, Robert, 204–5
Scott, Donald, 39, 47, 56
Scott, Walter, 44, 64
Scribner's, 208
Seaside and the Fireside, The (Longfellow), 94
Seitz, Brian, 92
“Self-Reliance” (Emerson), 80
Sennett, Richard, 43
Sensationalism, 48
Sexuality, Whitman's, 14, 22, 69, 90, 158–59, 164–65, 170–71
Shelley, Mary, 29
Shelley, Percy Bysshe, 64–65, 163
Shepherd, Esther, 6
“Shut Not Your Doors” (Whitman), 101
Sigourney, Lydia Huntley, 72
Sister Carrie (Dreiser), 214
“Sleepers, The” (Whitman), 68, 90, 126–27, 187, 212
Sly advertising, 101–2, 105–6
Smith, Susan Garnet, 172–73
Snow Bound (Whittier), 71
“So Long!” (Whitman), 66, 140
“Song for Occupations, A” (Whitman), 82–83, 111, 116, 153, 182
Song of Hiawatha, The (Longfellow), 73, 119
“Song of Myself” (Whitman), 11, 14, 162, 212;
advertising rhetoric in, 129–30, 132, 133–34;
celebrity, vision of, 136–37;
erotic intensity in, 69;
identification (p.249) with poet, 135–36;
intimacy of, 166;
oratory in, 125–26, 127;
personalities in, 75–76;
self-advertisement in, 102–3;
self-revelation in, 152;
sympathy in, 148–49, 151
“Song of Prudence” (Whitman), 182
“Song of the Answerer” (Whitman), 87–88, 89, 100, 178, 187
“Song of the Broad Axe” (Whitman), 66, 92–93
“Song of the Open Road” (Whitman), 95–96, 211
Southern Quarterly Review, 51
Spanish Student, The (Longfellow), 73
Specimen Days and Collect (Whitman), 11, 201
Springfield Republican, 202, 203
Star system: celebrity culture and, 194–98;
in entertainment industry, 144, 215;
illusion of intimacy and, 144
“Starting from Paumanok” (Whitman), 67, 120–22, 183
Stedman, Edmund, 202, 205, 208
Stereoscopes, 198
Sterne, Laurence, 28
St. Gaudens, Augustus, 191
Stoddard, Richard Henry, 38
Stoker, Bram, 21
Stowe, Harriet Beecher, 5, 16, 30, 38, 40, 57, 86, 150
Sumner, Charles, 72
Susman, Warren, 63, 65, 87–88, 96
Swinton, John, 208
Sympathy, shared intimacy and, 19, 145–52
Tales of a Wayside Inn (Longfellow), 73
Taylor, Bayard, 36, 43, 64, 204, 205, 208
Taylor, W. Curtis, 3
Terhune, Mary Virginia, 43
“That Shadow My Likeness” (Whitman), 163
Thayer, William Roscoe, 3, 4, 13, 15, 70
“There Was a Child Went Forth” (Whitman), 69
Thoreau, Henry David, 35
Thornton, Tamara, 42
“Thought” (Whitman), 182
Thumb, Tom, 24, 30, 48;
General and Mrs. Lavinia, 49
Ticknor and Fields, 73
Timber Creek, New Jersey, 11
“To a President” (Whitman), 182
“To a Pupil” (Whitman), 96–97, 187
“To a Stranger” (Calamus 22), 170
Tocqueville, Alexis de, 112
“To the States” (Whitman), 182
“To You, Whoever You Are” (Whitman), 7, 116
Trachtenberg, Alan, 41
Traubel, Horace, 13, 60, 177;
commemorative book edited by, 138;
conversations with Whitman, 14, 78, 98–99, 137, 180, 185, 187, 193–94, 196, 197, 203, 210;
essay on Whitman, 210;
on fans, 172–73
Trenton Times, 202
“Trickle Drops” (Whitman), 163–64
Tristram Shandy (Sterne), 28
Trollope, Mrs., 29
Tupper, Martin, 6, 70–71
Twain, Mark, 5, 10, 162, 163, 191
Two Rivulets (Whitman), 204
“Two Vaults, The” (Whitman), 61–63, 170
Uncle Tom's Cabin (Stowe), 38, 57, 70
United States Review, 113, 114
“Upper Ten Thousand,” 55–56
Values, illusory, celebrity and, 48–54
Van Buren, Martin, 55
“Vanity and Glory of Literature, The,” 174–75
Van Rensselaer, Mrs. Schuyler, 191
Vermont Gazette, 29
Verse advertisements, 118–19, 120
Victoria, Queen, 5
“Village Blacksmith, The” (Longfellow), 75
Vision of Sir Launfal, The (Lowell), 72
Voices of the Night (Longfellow), 73
“Walt Whitman: Is He Persecuted?” (O'Connor), 208
Walt Whitman in Camden, 198
Walt Whitman's America (Reynolds), 13
Warner, Susan, 38
Washington Daily National Intelligencer, 161
Washington Star, 201
Webster, Daniel, 35, 41
(p.250) West Jersey Press affair, 202–5, 206, 208–9
West Philadelphia Lyceum, 33–34
Whalen, Terence, 107
“When I Heard at the Close of the Day” (Calamus 11), 160–61, 170
“When I Peruse the Conquer'd Fame” (Calamus 28), 160
“When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd” (Whitman), 192–93
Whitman, Walt: assessment of career, 212–13;
autopsy and medical reports on, 139, 140, 164;
Bohemia's support of, 61;
on butterfly photograph, 3, 14–15;
celebrity, vision of, 5–6, 22–23, 136–37, 215;
celebrity distrusted by, 53–54, 196;
celebrity experienced by, 5, 21–22, 202, 210–11;
as celebrity of common people, 88–90;
celebrity repudiated by, 160–63;
civic evangelism of, 7, 96, 130, 131–32;
commemorative book on, 138–41;
comparison with Longfellow, 74–75;
consumer capitalism and, 133;
death of, 215;
dismissal from Bureau of Indian Affairs, 88, 186, 199, 203;
on elections and electioneering, 176–77;
on Emerson's circle, 81–82;
fans and, 166–73;
free verse of, 120;
historical assessment of poems, 13;
as imperial self, 134;
on journalism, 111;
on Longfellow, 74, 76;
mental health of, 99;
on Paine, 77–78;
personality, vision of, 64–70;
on photography, 4;
physical appearance of, 69;
on poet's civic worth, 59–60;
populism of, 180–81, 211–15;
as poseur, 3–4;
privacy concerns of, 14;
public opinion and, 56, 60–63, 76–77, 83, 84–85, 86–87, 110–11;
reading habits of, 42;
on rhyme, 119–20;
sexuality of, 14, 22, 69, 90, 158–59, 164–65, 170–71;
sympathy of, 147–52, 156;
William Cullen Bryant and, 71;
Wordsworth as model for selfpromotion, 115–16
Whitman, Walt, Works: “Ambition,” 53;
“Among the Multitude” (Calamus 41), 171–72;
“Are You the New Person Drawn to Me?” (Calamus 12), 165;
“As I Ebb'd with the Ocean of Life” (Bardic Symbols), 162–63;
“A Backward Glance O'er Travel'd Roads,” 67, 198–99, 203;
“A Boston Ballad,” 182;
“A Broadway Pageant,” 87;
“By Blue Ontario's Shore,” 60, 87, 115, 149;
“Come Up from the Fields Father,” 74;
“Crossing Brooklyn Ferry,” 17, 92, 151, 152, 200;
Democratic Vistas, 177, 205–8, 213;
Drum Taps, 101, 147, 185;
“The Eighteenth Presidency!” 183–84;
“Faces,” 68;
“Fame's Vanity,” 53–54;
“For You O Democracy,” 158;
Franklin Evans, 18, 70, 109–11;
“A Glimpse” (Calamus 29), 169–70;
“Going Somewhere,” 172;
“Here the Frailest Leaves of Me,” 143;
Imprints, 112–13;
“In Paths Untrodden,” 159–60;
Letters from Paumanok, 71;
Lincoln lectures, 188, 189, 190–94, 192;
“Live Oak, with Moss” sequence, 158–59, 165;
November Boughs, 23, 24;
“O Captain, My Captain,” 185, 188, 190, 192, 193;
“On Emerson and the New England Set,” 81–82;
“One's Self I Sing,” 67;
“Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking,” 61, 154–57;
“Poem of Joys,” 66–67;
“Poem of You, Whoever You Are,” 145–47;
“Poets to Come,” 92;
Preface to Leaves of Grass 1855, 59, 60, 68, 75, 95, 102, 111, 114, 120, 148, 178, 182, 199;
“Recorders Ages Hence” (Calamus 10), 161;
“Salut au Monde!” 86;
“Shut Not Your Doors,” 101;
“The Sleepers,” 68, 90, 126–27, 187, 212;
“So Long!” 66, 140;
“A Song for Occupations,” 82–83, 111, 116, 153, 182;
“Song of Myself” (see “Song of Myself”);
“Song of Prudence,” 182;;
“Song of the Answerer,” 87–88, 89, 100, 178–79, 187;
“Song of the Broad Axe,” 66, 92–93;
“Song of the Open Road,” 95–96, 211;
Specimen Days and Collect, 11, 201;
“Starting from Paumanok,” 67, 120–22, 183;
“That Shadow My Likeness” (Calamus 40), 163;
“There Was a Child Went Forth,” 69;
“Thought,” 182;
“To a President,” 182;
“To a Pupil,” 96–97, 187;
“To a (p.251) Stranger” (Calamus 22), 170;
“To the States,” 182;
“To You, Whoever You Are,” 7, 116;
“Trickle Drops” (Calamus 15), 163–64;
Two Rivulets, 204;
“The Two Vaults,” 61–63, 170;
“When I Heard at the Close of the Day” (Calamus 11), 160–61, 170;
“When I Peruse the Conquer'd Fame” (Calamus 28), 160;
“When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd,” 192–93;
“Whoever You Are Now Holding Me in Hand” (Calamus 3), 157, 165, 166, 167;
“Who Is Now Reading This?” (Calamus 16), 165;
“The Wound Dresser,” 86, 92; See also Calamus poems; Leaves of Grass
Whitmaniacs, 139, 140, 167
Whittier, John Greenleaf, 71
“Whoever You Are Now Holding Me in Hand” (Calamus 3), 157, 165, 166, 167
“Who Is Now Reading This?” (Calamus 16), 165
Wicke, Jennifer, 106, 130–31
Wide, Wide World, The (Warner), 38
Wilde, Oscar, 5, 10, 21
Williams, William Carlos, 184
Willis, Nathaniel Parker, 6, 41, 49, 73, 142;
as Jenny Lind biographer, 153–54, 165;
trans-Atlantic prominence of, 29–30;
“Upper Ten Thousand” concept of, 55–56, 195
Wilson, James, 31
“Winter-Evening Hymn to My Fire, A” (Lowell), 93–94
Wordsworth, William, 64, 115–16, 148
“Wound Dresser, The” (Whitman), 86, 92
“Wreck of the Hesperus, The” (Longfellow), 73