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On the Ideological FrontThe Russian Intelligentsia and the Making of the Soviet Public Sphere$

Stuart Finkel

Print publication date: 2007

Print ISBN-13: 9780300122411

Published to Yale Scholarship Online: October 2013

DOI: 10.12987/yale/9780300122411.001.0001

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(p.321) Index

(p.321) Index

Source:
On the Ideological Front
Publisher:
Yale University Press

Italicized page numbers indicate the names of the deportees listed in the index.

Abrikosov kruzhok: 103, 108;
members arrested and deported, 108, 111
Abrikosov, Vladimir, 9, 103, 105, 108, 111, 229, 282n95
Abrikosova, Anna Ivanovna, 108, 111
Academia (publisher), 116, 125, 287n38
Academy of Sciences, 13, 19, 79
Adrionov, S. A., 133
Agitprop. See Bolsheviks
Agranov, Iakov, 18, 86, 142, 161, 168–69, 174, 208, 247n21, 301n100
Agricultural Cooperatives, 26, 69, 83, 87–88;
Bolshevik concerns about and purges of, 83, 85–86, 168, 205–206;
prominence of Socialist Revolutionaries in, 83. See also Sel'skosoiuz
Agronomist Congress, Third All-Russian (1922), 83
Agronomists, 82–88. See also VOA and MOSKh
Aikhenval'd, Iul'ii: arrest and deportation of, 8, 100, 177, 229;
on famine relief committee, 25, 38;
lecture on Akhmatova and Gumilev, 97;
and Free Academy of Spiritual Culture, 105, 282n103;
protests censorship, 121, 278n42;
on Dostoevsky, 129–30, 132;
emigration and death of, 216–17, 222, 314n7, 315n8, 287n41
Akhmatova, Anna, 92, 93, 94, 97
Aksol'dov, A. S., 104
Alekseev, N., 145
All-Russian Association of Engineers. See VAI
All-Russian Committee to Aid the Starving. See VKPG
All-Russian Proletarian Writers' Association. See VAPP
All-Russian Society of Agronomists. See VOA
All-Russian Union of Engineers, VSI, 77
(p.322) All-Russian Union of Writers (Vserossiiskii soiuz pisatelei), 25, 89, 94–97, 99, 100, 192, 277n29;
Petrograd (Leningrad) branch, 94–95, 100–102, 119, 279–80n67;
Writers' Book Shop, 95–96, 117;
avoids closure, 101–102;
appeals on publishing and censorship, 118, 121, 289n57. See also Literaturnaia gazeta
Aluf, A., 73, 75, 76
American Relief Administration (ARA), 25, 30–31, 32, 37, 252–53n89
Amfiteatrov, A. V., 90, 99
Anisimova-Stankevich, V. O., 109
Anthroposophical Society, 103, 104, 107, 110, 112, 281n91
Arbuzov, A. D., 108, 184–85, 229
Artel'noe delo (journal of Severokustar'), 87, 137, 178, 291n87
Avsarkisov, M. P., 25
Babkin, B. P., 196, 229
Baikov, A. L., 108
Bakkal, I. Iu., 229
Bardygin, V. M., 229
Bartels, N., 203
Bednyi, Demian, 161
Beloborodov, A. G., 82
Belyi, Andrei, 92, 99, 217;
and Vol'fila, 103, 104, 110, 280nn73, 76;
and Free Academy of Spiritual Culture, 105;
and Anthroposophical Society, 107
Berdiaev, Nikolai, 5, 97, 106, 137, 140, 146, 147, 221, 230, 278n37, 280n76, 282n95;
arrest and deportation of, 8, 100, 109, 177, 184, 188–89, 192;
on Bolshevik worldview, 11, 47;
at MGU, 47, 128–29;
heads Free Academy of Spiritual Culture, 47, 103, 104–105;
in All-Russian Union of Writers, 96, 100, 121, 192;
ties to religious groups, 107, 108;
and censorship, 121, 128, 278n42, 289n57;
on Dostoevsky, 121, 128–29, 132, 289n56;
on Spengler, 126–29, 288n53;
on higher education reforms, 189–90;
and emigration, 216–17, 221–22, 315n8, 316n22, 318nn46, 47
Berdiaeva, Lidiia, 108
Bereg (publisher), 116, 125, 147, 287n38
Biriukov, Pavel, 23, 32
Blok, Aleksandr, 91, 92, 101;
death and commemoration of, 92–93, 99, 104, 128, 276nn15, 16;
and Vol'fila, 104
Bogdanov, Boris, 212, 314n155
Bogdanov, Pëtr A. (VSNKh chief), 78, 80, 176–77, 202, 205, 210, 311n116
Bogolepov, A. A., 59, 65, 230
Bogolepov, D. N., 47, 50–51, 262n74
Bolsheviks: Agitprop and propaganda, 41, 97–98, 114, 116, 123–24, 142–45, 148, 158–59, 186–87;
conception of and policy toward intellectuals, 2–3, 6, 7, 13, 16–17, 38, 175–76, 186–87, 223–25, 244n39;
conception of the enemy, 10–11, 16–17, 28, 36, 165–66, 175, 178–81, 186, 213–14, 226, 243–44n33, 301nn8283, 304n131;
Twelfth Party Congress, 38, 83, 86, 116, 136, 142–44, 151, 179, 201;
higher education reform, 40–41, 43, 52–53, 60, 64–66;
Eleventh Party Congress, 62, 124, 141, 163;
Workers' Opposition, 70;
—leadership and governing organs (Politburo, Orgburo, Central Committee, etc.): and famine relief committee, 21, 24, 31–33;
and Pomoshch', 29;
response to VUZ strikes, 52–53, 60–64, 70;
and arrest of physicians, 75;
and agricultural cooperatives, 83;
creation of society for writers, 98–99;
creation of Politotdel 121–24;
response to economic and ideological criticism, 140–42;
deportation and expulsion of intellectuals, 153–54, 164, 166–70, 175, 191, 309n82;
(p.323) actions against church officials, 158–59;
legislation on exile, 179–81;
and appeals to for amnesty, 200, 202, 206–12, 220, 313n151
Bonch-Breuvich, V. D., 91, 130, 275n6, 282n101
“Bourgeois ideology,” resurgence of. See “Ideological Front”
Brown, Walter, 31
Bruisov, Valerii, 99
Brutskus, Boris, 87, 141, 230;
arrest and deportation of, 8–9, 147, 176, 310n108;
criticizes Soviet policies, 83–84, 137, 140, 273n72, 291n97, 292n104
Bubnov, Andrei (Agitprop chief), 64, 114, 116, 136, 149;
criticizes Sorokin, 140–41;
and ideological front, 142–45, 150, 225–26
Bukharin, Nikolai, 145, 167, 225, 259n34, 293n118, 319n4
Bukshpan, Iakov, 105, 126, 146, 210, 282n103
Bulatov, A. A., 87, 230
Bulgakov, Sergei, 230;
arrest and deportation of, 8, 109, 196
Bulgakov, Valentin, 230;
arrest and deportation of 9, 38, 110, 197;
on famine relief committee, 23, 36–38, 255n119;
and Free Association of Spiritual Tendencies, 103, 109, 110, 197;
and Tolstoyan movement, 103, 108–109;
in emigration and return, 217, 222, 315n14, 319n51
Burbank, Jane, 7
Burtsev, Vladimir, 30
Bystrianskii, V. A. (Petrograd Politotdel chief), 146–47
Catholics in Soviet Russia, 103, 108, 111;
and exarch Leonid Fëdorov, 111. See also Abrikosov kruzhok
Censorship, 29, 75, 114, 120–25, 170, 284n3, 295n145;
criticized at House of Litterateurs, 93;
protested by All-Russian Union of Writers, 97, 121. See also Glavlit; Gosizdat Politotdel
Cheka: arrests and internal exile of intellectuals, 13–19, 34–45, 36, 38, 153–56, 251n72;
and surveillance operations, 24, 122, 296n11;
reports on and arrests of students, 62, 302n107;
and censorship, 121, 124, 286n20;
replaced by GPU, 152, 156. See also GPU
Cherkasov, I. A., 38
Chertkov, Vladimir, 9, 108, 110, 111, 197
Chicherin, G. V., 31, 33, 36–37
Chukovskii, Kornei, 91, 93, 289n57
Clark, Katerina, 92, 93
Clemens, J. (I. A. Kleinman), 133, 135–36, 290–91n84
Commissariat of Agriculture. See Narkomzem
Commissariat of Enlightenment. See Narkompros
Commissariat of Foreign Affairs (Narkomindel), 31, 191, 195
Commissariat of Health. See Narkomzdrav
Commissariat of Internal Affairs. See NKVD
Commissariat of Justice. See Narkomiust
Commission to Improve the Lot of Scholars. See KUBU
Communist Party. See Bolsheviks
Communist Youth League. See Komsomol
Constitutional Democrat Party. See Kadets
Cultural and literary societies, 89–103 passim
Dan, Födor, 154–55, 297n19
David-Fox, Michael, 3–4
Decline of the West. See Spengler, Oswald
Dembo, G. I., 73, 171
Derzhavin, N. S., 59, 265n111
Dni (Berline émigré newspaper), 216, 220
Dom isskustv. See House of Arts
Dom literatorov. See House of Litterateurs
(p.324) Dostoevsky, Fëdor: commemoration and analysis of, 92–94, 104–105, 116, 127, 128–33, 276n20, 289nn5556;
Bolshevik critiques of, 131–33, 289n64
Dvinov, Boris, 212
Dzerzhinskii, Feliks: role in prosecution of Petrograd Battle Organization affair 18;
actions against and surveillance of intellectuals, 34, 64, 141, 146, 166–68, 174–76, 202, 204–205, 208, 212–13, 255n130, 303n122;
as occasional patron for spetsy, 78, 202, 213;
appeals to on behalf of writers, 96;
surveillance of church officials, 158;
actions against other political parties, 160, 162, 203, 212, 300n67;
as head of GPU and NKVD, 180;
heads NKVD commission on administrative exile, 211;
expansion of surveillance activities, 212–13;
on Whiteguard publications, 293n124
Education Workers Union. See Rabpros
Ehrenburg, Ilya, 217
Ekonomicheskoe vozrozhdenie (journal), 137, 178–79, 291n87
Ekonomist (journal of 11th branch of RTO): criticism of regime, 81, 116, 140, 272n57;
Sorokin's articles in, 137, 139;
and Bolshevik reaction to, 143, 145–47, 174, 176, 178, 291n99;
shut down, 147, 179
Emigration, 6, 92, 99;
émigré publications, 26, 30, 100, 200, 216, 220, 221;
intellectuals and attitude toward, 188, 189, 315n14;
émigré intellectual societies, 216–17, 314nn67, 315n8;
—émigré community: Bolshevik trepidations concerning, 14, 24, 31, 143, 159, 198–99, 280n76, 315nn1516;
reaction to famine relief committee, 29;
and Smena vekh, 133, 135, 314n5;
and deportees, 195, 215–22;
Kadets and famine relief, 252nn8283
Ephstein, D. A., 61
Evreinov, M. G., 80
Exile, administrative, 9–10, 34–35, 153–56, 179–80, 211–13, 225, 296n12, 301n85
Famine: in Volga region, 1921–23, 15, 20–39 passim, 73, 171;
of 1891–92, 22
Famine relief committee. See VKPG
Federation of Associations of Soviet Writers (FOSP), 102
Fedin, Konstantin, 92, 94, 102
Fel'dshtein, M. S., 105, 282n103
Figner, Vera, 22, 24, 35, 220
Florovskii, Antonii, 8, 196, 217, 222, 230
Forced labor camps, 211–12, 225
France, Anatole, 161
Frank, Semën: arrest and deportation of, 8, 109, 174, 177, 193, 230;
as Vekhist, 5, 221–22;
and MGU Institute of Scientific Philosophy, 47, 106, 260n45;
at Saratov University, 47;
and Free Academy of Spiritual Culture, 105;
Methodology of Social Sciences, 122, 125, 174, 303n117;
essay in Iz glubiny, 125–26;
on Spengler, 126–28, 288n53;
and Bereg publisher, 147, 287n38;
in emigration, 215, 217, 221–22, 314n7
Free Academy of Spiritual Culture, 47, 89, 103, 104–105, 125, 282n103;
dissolved by NKVD, 109–10
Free Association of Spiritual Tendencies. See Bulgakov, Valentin
Free Economic Society, 206, 272n57
(p.325) Free Philosophical Association. See Vol'fila
Friche, V. M., 132
Frumin, Dr., 171
Garvi, Pëtr, 212
Gershenzon, Mikhail, 5, 23, 25, 104, 280n76
Glavlit (Central censorship organ): formation and operation of, 97, 98, 116, 124, 146–49, 153, 225, 278n42, 292n108, 293n124, 294nn131, 140, 295nn146, 148;
and consolidation of censorship, 116, 124, 148;
led by Lebedev-Polianskii, 116, 148, 149;
and closure of Zadruga, 147, 294n131;
and GPU, 148, 149, 215, 293n124. See also Gosizdat Politotdel
Glavpolitprosvet (Main Political Enlightenment Committee), 98, 121, 123, 144
Glavprofobr (Main Committee for Professional-Technical Education): and Preobrazhenskii, 41, 52, 60;
establishment of, 45–46;
and changes to the professoriat and student organizations, 48–49;
and higher educational reforms, 51–52, 56–58, 63–65, 263n96;
headed by Iakovleva, 59;
opposition to by professors, 58–61, 63;
and rectors' conferences, 64, 98;
role in anti-intellectual campaign, 169;
and expulsion of intellectuals, 172–73, 176–77, 311n116;
and appeals to on behalf of expelled, 173, 203
Golder, Frank (ARA official), 182–83, 186, 296n6, 303n115
Golos Rossii (Berlin émigré newspaper), 26, 100, 200
Golovachev, Vladimir D., 27, 38, 186, 230
Golovin, F. A., 23, 25, 35
Gorbunov-Posadov, I. I., 197
Gorbunov, N. P., 78, 288n52
Goretskii, Gavril, 186
Gorky, Maxim: as patron and defender of intelligentsia, 14, 34, 38, 45, 89–90, 92, 96, 161, 186, 200, 204, 207, 221, 274n2, 285n10, 300n73, 310n94, 318n40;
and relations with Zinoviev, 18, 34, 38, 256n133;
on famine relief committee (VKPG), 20–21, 23, 26, 29–32, 34, 248n30;
and Houses of Litterateurs and of Arts, 91, 101;
supports private and cooperative publishers, 118, 120;
on Dostoevsky, 130–32, 289n64;
protests SR show trial, 161, 186, 299n58
Gornfel'd, A. G., 174
Gorovits-Vlasova, L. M., 171
Gosizdat (state publisher), 75, 95, 117, 123, 176;
and control of publishing, 117–20, 293nn128, 140;
and Kniga i revoliutsiia, 141;
—Politotdel (censorship organ), 97, 120–24, 129, 142, 145–47, 286n29, 289n57, 293nn128, 130;
replacement by Glavlit, 97, 148, 292n108;
and Cheka, 121, 286n20;
protest of by All-Russian Union of Writers, 121;
criticism of by Lunacharskii, 122
Gosplan (State Planning Committee), 78, 79
Got'e, Iurii, 23, 265n114
GPU (State Political Administration), 38, 49–50, 64, 75, 83, 159;
and arrest and deportation of intellectuals, 1, 38, 142, 147–48, 152, 157, 161, 164–69, 174–76, 179–85, 187–94, 196, 199, 203–204, 210;
and surveillance operations, 68–69, 76–78, 80–81, 87–88, 102, 108, 110, 112, 116, 142, 152, 157, 160, 163, 170, 175–76, 188, 202, 213, 224, 298n44, 313n150;
and arrests of physicians, 75–76, 171–72, 301n100;
and antiintellectual campaigns, 116, 142, 161;
role in censorship, 124, 145–46, 148–49, 152, 212, 293nn124, 128;
(p.326) and administrative exile, 152, 165, 169, 180, 225, 304n141;
retains and expands Cheka's powers, 152–53, 156, 165–66, 169, 174, 213, 295n2;
and liquidation of Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries, 155–56, 162, 211, 224;
and arrests of student leaders, 172–73, 302n108;
Ukrainian branch, 198–99;
infiltrates emigration, 217, 315n15. See also Cheka; NKVD
Granovskii, L. B., 171
Gredeskul, N. A., 133, 136
Griftsov, B. A., 110
Grinberg, Zakharii, 210
Grinko, G. F., 45–46
Guber, P. K., 133
Gumilev, Nikolai: execution of, 18, 92, 97, 99, 194;
in Petrograd literary societies, 91–92, 93, 94, 101
Gurevich, E. L., 36
Gurevich, N. I., 171
GUS (State Academic Council), 46–48, 50, 56, 63–65, 212, 259n34, 300n74
Habermas, Jürgen, 11–12, 242n19
Haskell, William, 37
Higher educational institutions. See VUZy
Hodgson, R. M., 29, 252n80
Holquist, Peter, 10–11, 68
Hoover, Herbert, 30–31, 32, 36, 37
House of Arts, 89, 91–94, 98, 100, 107, 207;
Dom isskustv (journal), 94;
shut down, 101, 279n61
House of Litterateurs: establishment, operations, and activities of, 89, 90, 94, 107, 113, 275n6, 276n18, 279n57, 284n120;
Bolshevik concerns about and actions against, 91, 98–100, 101, 150;
debates on smenovekhovstvo at, 93, 133, 136;
Letopis' doma literatorov (journal), 94, 99, 116, 121, 124, 146, 174;
Literaturnye zapiski (journal), 94, 99, 124, 147, 150, 179;
and appeals on behalf of members, 96;
and criticism of regime, 97;
prominent members of arrested and/or deported, 100, 176, 206;
shut down, 100–101
House of Scholars, 91
Iagoda, Genrikh, 174, 183, 205, 210
Iakhnina, A. B., 171
Iakovlev, Iakov (deputy head of Agitprop), 98, 124
Iakovleva, Varvara: as head of Glavprofobr, 59, 61–65, 172, 302n110, 310n104;
chairs rectors' conferences, 64, 79;
on GPU commission, 64;
and arrest of students, 172–73;
and role in deportations, 176–77, 201, 205;
formerly in Cheka 177, 266n120, 303n126;
and petitioned on behalf of intellectuals, 202–205, 208–10, 312n138
Iaroslavskii, Emelian, 39, 86, 108–109, 282n101
Iasinskii, Vsevolod, 35, 230;
arrest and deportation of 9, 38, 65, 185, 191–92;
head of Moscow Union of Scientific Actors, 54, 65;
as KUBU leader, 65, 185, 204, 307n40;
in emigration, 215–18, 314nn4, 6
“Ideology of Nauka,” 41–43, 54, 65–66, 68
Ignatiev, Pavel, 42
Il'in, Ivan, 230;
arrest and deportation of, 8, 65, 109, 189;
at MGU, banned from teaching, 47, 260n45;
as head of Moscow Psychological Society, 106;
in emigration, 215, 217, 221–22, 318n42;
On the Resistance of Evil by Force, 221
Industrial cooperatives (craft-industrial cooperatives), 86, 87
(p.327) Industrial Party trial, 82
Institute of Red Professors, 47
Intellectuals. See Intelligentsia
Intelligentsia, 167, 169–70, 179, 188, 214, 253n93;
and Bolshevik regime, 1–4, 37, 38, 39, 144–45, 163, 170–71, 219–22, 223–24, 226;
definitions and conceptions of, 3, 5, 134–35, 175–76, 189, 223, 226–27;
and New Economic Policy (NEP), 3, 6–7, 19, 39, 72, 82, 115, 150, 208, 217–18;
and October Revolution, 6, 13, 15;
and emigration, 9, 14, 18, 23–24, 29–30, 36;
involvement with Whites or anti-Soviet groups, 13–15, 17–18, 44, 221;
and Civil War, 14, 82, 245n3;
intellectuals as “public figures,” 14–15, 19, 24, 72, 115, 164, 218, 246n6;
journals and publications of in 1920s, 115–16;
criticized in Iz glubiny, 126;
and deportation of, 151–214 passim
Ionov, I. I., 176–77
Iretskii, Viktor, 230;
and House of Litterateurs, 92;
arrest and deportation of, 100, 147, 196, 290n84, 308n57, 309n75;
on Petrograd branch of Union of Writers, 100
Iushtim, I. I., 80, 230
Ivanov-Razumnik, R. V., 5, 103, 104, 280n73
Ivanov, Viacheslav, 196
Ivanov, Vsevolod, 99
Iz glubiny (Out of the Depths), 7, 125–26, 128
Izgoev, Aleksandr, 7, 146, 231, 242n13, 243n24, 291n99;
arrest and deportation of, 8–9, 100, 147, 174, 194, 308n60;
criticizes smenovekhovstvo, 93, 133–36;
petitions on behalf of in 1921, 96–97;
as Vekhist, 133–34, 140, 221;
in emigration, 216, 221
Iziumov, Aleksandr, 176, 231
Izvestia, 113
Jansen, Marc, 16
Kadets (Constitutional Democrats): as part of “Philosophers' Steamboat,” 9;
and conspiratorial organizations, 15–16;
on famine relief committee 23–24, 34–35;
in emigration, 29, 218, 252n83;
as members of professoriat and involvement with students, 42–43, 44;
Bolshevik concerns with influence of, 43, 63, 75, 85–86, 168, 172, 178;
presence in agricultural cooperatives, 85;
in cultural and literary societies, 91, 133
Kagan, Abram, 231;
arrest and deportation of, 8, 147, 195;
as prominent publisher, 116, 120, 216
Kalinin, M. I., 37, 96
Kalinnikov, I. A., 52, 61, 271n47
Kamenev, Lev: on famine relief committee, 20–25, 27, 29, 30, 32, 34–38, 249n43, 250n52;
as leader of Moscow Soviet, 53, 96, 102, 105;
and professors' organizations, 53;
and deportation of intellectuals, 63, 142, 169–71, 173–74, 186, 199, 200, 201, 202, 211, 303n115;
as occasional intercessor for intellectuals, 96, 102, 195, 202, 206, 278n37, 299n48, 310n100;
and strengthening of GPU, 153, 156, 174;
and actions against SRs 160;
and actions against students, 185
Kaminskii, Grigorii, 205
Karpinskii, A. P., 19, 23, 26, 34
Karsavin, Lev, 231;
arrest and deportation of, 8, 65, 109, 310n109;
opposes Bolshevik VUZ reforms, 55, 263n93;
as candidate to PGU board, 59;
lectures at PGU Philosophical Society, 106;
Noctes Petropolitanae, 125;
on Dostoevsky, 130;
in emigration, 217, 222, 314nn67
Kats, Ia. Iu., 72, 74–76, 171, 270nn2425
Kaufman, A. E., 90, 99
Kazan University, 9, 47, 64, 65, 308n70
Kenez, Peter, 12
(p.328) Kerensky, Alexander, 30, 216, 220, 317n32
Khariton, Boris, 231;
arrest and deportation of, 2, 8, 100, 147, 176;
as leader of House of Litterateurs, 90, 100, 176;
in emigration, 315n8
Kharkov, professors and intellectuals, 174, 198–99
Khinchuk, L. M., 38, 176–77, 206
Khodasevich, Vladislav, 34, 92, 95, 99, 100, 101, 119, 200, 279n58
Khrennikov, S. A., 81
Kishkin, N. M.: and VKPG, 20, 22–25, 27, 29–31, 36–38;
as Kadet, 23;
internal exile of, 38
Kistiakovskii, I. V., 199
Kizevetter, Aleksandr, 146, 224, 231;
arrest and deportation of, 8–9, 18, 316n21;
criticizes Bolshevik VUZ reforms, 44;
book review censored, 121;
associated with Zadruga, 176, 178, 294n131;
implicated in Tactical Center, 178;
and emigration 216–18, 316n21
Kliachko, L. M., 90
Kliuchnikov, Iu. V., 133, 136
Knizhnaia palata (Book Chamber), 149
Kogan, V. M., 74, 171
Komsomol (Communist Youth League), 48, 65
Kondrat'ev, Nikolai, 9, 84, 86–87, 204–205
Korobov, D. S., 24, 26, 38
Korolenko, V. G., 147;
and famine relief committee, 23, 34;
death and commemoration of, 92, 128
Kotliarevskii, N. A., 90
Kovalevskii Sociology Society (Petrograd), 107, 111
Kozlov, N. P., 80, 231
Kozyrev, M. Ia., 146
Krasil'nikov, S. A., 165
Krasin, Leonid B., 23, 32, 33, 186, 204, 220
Krasnaia Nov' (journal), 98–99, 102, 119, 123, 143–44
Krasutskii, Ivan, 198
Krokhmal? Viktor, 177, 205
Kronstadt rebellion, 14, 17, 154, 247n16
Kropotkin, Pëtr, 118
Krug (publisher), 99, 116
Kruzhki (literary and/or philosophical circles), 89, 95, 98, 104, 106–107, 114, 125, 216–17, 277n33
Krylenko, Nikolai, 16–17, 161
Krzhizhanovskii, Gleb (head of Gosplan), 78, 79, 80
Kubitskii, A. V., 60
KUBU (Commission to Improve the Lot of Scholars), also TsKUBU, 53, 70, 183, 185;
deportation of leaders of, 9, 65, 100, 191, 192–93;
appeals on behalf of intellectuals, 14, 200, 203–204;
Gorky and establishment of, 45, 91
Kudriavtsev, V. M., 147, 176, 216, 231, 294n131
Kuibyshev, V. V., 86
Kukhovarenko, M. I., 20, 25
Kukolevskii, Ivan, 65, 177–78, 205, 311n116
Kurskii, D. I. (Commissar of Justice): appeals to on behalf of Izgoev, 96;
on Politburo commission concerning intellectuals, 142, 169–71, 173–74, 199, 211;
and formation of GPU, 156, 174;
and show trials, 160;
and criminal code on counterrevolutionary activities, 165, 166;
on deportations, 186
Kushner, Boris, 146
Kuskova, Ekaterina, 231;
arrest, internal exile, and deportation of, 9, 15, 35, 37–38, 164–65, 185, 300nn73, 74, 75;
on famine relief committee, 20–23, 25, 27, 28, 31–35, 248n30;
in emigration and “returnism,” 216, 218–20, 316n26, 317n27
Kutler, N. N., 23, 25, 31, 35–36
Kuzmin, Mikhail, 92
(p.329) Kuzmin-Karavaev, D. V., 108, 216, 231
Kuzmina-Karavaeva, E. Iu. (“Mother Maria”), 108
Lapshin, Ivan, 231;
arrest and deportation of, 2, 8, 109, 194, 201, 310n109;
removed from teaching at PGU, 47;
lectures at PGU Philosophical Society, 106;
in emigration, 217
Lazarevskii, N. I., 18
Lebedev-Polianskii, P. I. (head of Glavlit): as leader of Poliotdel, 97;
views on censorship, 99, 121, 207;
and formation of Glavlit, 116, 124, 148;
disagreement with Lunarcharskii, 121–23, 295n144;
and Glavlit secret bulletin, 149;
role in deportations, 176–77, 201
Lefort, Claude, 10
Lenin, Vladimir I.: and deportation of intellectuals, 1, 9, 64, 141, 146–47, 152–53, 155, 157, 164–69, 173–76, 178, 180, 183, 191, 202, 205, 208, 255n130;
views of and policy toward intellectuals, 13–14, 19, 45, 63, 111, 116, 140, 181, 213, 225, 303n122;
and famine relief committee, 15, 20–21, 24, 26, 32–34, 36;
and actions against other parties and religious groups, 17, 83, 155, 156, 158, 160, 247n16, 299n51;
and Petrograd Battle Organization, 18–19;
and higher educational institutions, 40–41, 43, 46, 51–54, 56, 62, 259n33;
at Eleventh Party Congress, 62, 164;
“On the Meaning of Militant Materialism,” 63, 140, 163–64;
and Workers' Opposition, 70;
and arrest of physicians, 75;
and views of spetsy, 78, 79, 93, 175, 255n120, 293n118;
and agricultural cooperatives, 85, 86, 87;
and “ideological front,” 97, 141, 145;
and Russian “Spenglerites,” 105, 127–28, 163, 288n52;
and freedom of the press and publishers, 115, 122, 146–47;
views on Dostoevsky, 130, 289n64;
stroke and recuperation, 136, 146, 168, 205;
relationship with Gorky, 161, 256n133, 299n58;
advocates expulsion of Rozhkov, 208–10
Leont'ev, S. M., 246n11, 305n12
Levin, G. L., 27
Lezhnev, I. G., 146, 167, 174, 225–26, 319n7
Likhachev, V. M., 176
Literaturnaia gazeta (banned periodical of Petrograd Union of Writers), 119–20
Litkens, E. A., 122
Litvinov, M. M., 23, 31
Liubimov, Nikolai I.., 86, 195, 205–206, 231
Livin, Dr., 74
Lopatin, L. M., 106
Losskii, Boris, 194
Losskii, Nikolai, 231;
arrest and deportation of, 2, 8, 65, 109, 183, 190–91, 194, 310n109;
removed from teaching at PGU, 47;
and Vol'fila, 104;
ties to religious groups, 107, 217;
Logic, 125;
on Dostoevsky, 130
Lozinskii, A. A., 171
Lubianka (prison), 35
Lukin, M. G., 172
Lunacharskii, Anatolii: and famine relief committee, 23, 28, 33;
and relations with intellectuals, 23, 97, 119, 200, 201, 202, 225;
and higher educational policies, 41, 43, 44, 46, 50–53, 55, 56, 59, 267n134;
and professors, 52, 55, 61–64, 177, 258n19;
and “soft line” in culture, 53, 240n4, 319n4;
appeals on Blok's behalf, 92;
and publishing and censorship, 97, 115, 117–18, 119–23, 144, 225, 287n36, 289n57, 295n144;
criticizes House of Arts, 94;
on Dostoevsky, 131–32;
poor relations with Zinoviev, 177, 201, 303n127;
speech “Ideological Front Against the Bourgeoisie,” 201
(p.330) Lunts, Lev, 94
Lutokhin, A. P., 221
Lutokhin, Dalmat, 231;
arrest and deportation of, 8, 147, 176, 196–97, 309n76;
as editor of journals and almanacs, 99, 124, 137, 146–48, 164, 196, 220;
in emigration and return, 216–17, 220–21, 314n4, 317n36, 318nn3940
Maguire, Robert, 102
Magula, M. M., 72, 171, 174, 303n116
Main Fuels Administration (Glavtop) affair, 17
Maklakov, Vasilii, 218
Maksimov, Iu. N., 27
Maloletenkov, N. V., 87, 231
Mandelstam, Osip, 92, 99
Mantsev, V. N. (Ukraine GPU chief), 166, 174
Marr, N. Ia., 23, 26, 34
Martsinkovskii, V. F., 9, 103, 107, 110, 231
Matusevich, Iosif, 100, 232, 278n42
Matveev, Ivan P., 25, 38, 86–87, 178, 195, 205–206, 232
Medical Workers Union. See Vsemediksantrud
Mekk, N. K., 81
Mel'gunov, Sergei, 16, 23, 164, 232, 249n46;
arrest and deportation of, 9, 147, 176, 185, 193, 305nn1213;
and Tactical Center, 17, 246n11;
as head of Zadruga publishing, 147, 176, 185, 193, 216, 294n131;
in emigration, 216, 219, 315n8
Mel'gunova, Praskovia, 165, 193
Mensheviks: and opposition to regime, 16, 17, 43, 143, 149, 157, 168, 178, 179, 181, 211, 297nn25, 28, 302n105;
and student and youth groups, 43, 49, 224, 302n107, 313n150;
in trade unions, 69–70, 83, 154, 160;
and agricultural cooperatives, 86;
and House of Writers, 91;
arrests and deportations of, 154–56, 160–62, 171, 172, 187, 208–209, 212, 297nn19, 2223, 26;
encouraged to disavow party, 209–10, 313n139
Menzhinskii, Viacheslav, 185, 196, 220
Meshcheriakov, N. L. (Gosizdat head), 97, 120–24, 148, 286nn20, 29
Mesiatsev, P., 141, 292n104
Messing, S. A. (Petrograd GPU chief), 166, 174
Miakotin, Venedikt, 23, 232;
arrest and deportation of, 8, 174, 176–77, 183, 192;
and Union for the Regeneration of Russia, 16;
in emigration, 216–19
Miliukin, A. S., 198–99
Miliukov, Pavel, 18, 29–30, 63, 147, 216, 266n128, 317n29
Molotov, V. M., 206
Moscow Agricultural Society. See MOSKh
Moscow Archaeological Society, 111
Moscow city government: Moscow department of education (MONO), 53–54;
Moscow Soviet, 53–54, 77, 87, 117
Moscow Higher Technical School (MVTU), 9, 50, 65, 80, 205, 311n113;
student groups and exile, 49, 172–73;
conflict over administrative reforms, 52–53, 61–62, 63, 177
Moscow Institute of Transportation Engineers (IIPS), 57, 172, 178
Moscow Psychological Society, 103, 105, 109;
Voprosy filosofii i psikhologii (journal), 105
Moscow Union of Scientific Actors, 53–55, 65, 262n88, 263n90
Moscow University (MGU): professors arrested and/or expelled, 9, 65, 177, 203, 206, 207–208, 210;
faculty protests, 42, 44, 46, 57–58, 65;
abolition of philosophy department, 47, 104;
Institute of Scientific Philosophy, 47, 104, 106;
changes to administration, 50, 60–61, 268n41;
(p.331) arrest and deportation of students of, 172
Moscow Vegetarian Society. See Tolstoyans
MOSKh (Moscow Agricultural Society), 82–83, 87, 206
Motylev, V. E., 141
Muratov, Pavel, 95, 104–105
Murav'ev, N. K., 204
Mysl' (journal of PGU Philosophical Society), 106, 116, 125, 145, 146, 174;
shut down, 147, 179
Nansen, Fridtjof, 32, 34, 36, 37
Narkomiust (Commissariat of Justice), 110, 122, 156–57, 161, 165–66, 169, 180, 213, 283n109, 301n98, 304n139
Narkompros (Commissariat of Enlightenment): and higher education reforms, 41, 43, 44, 49–51, 55, 267n134;
and First All-Russian Party Conference on Education (1921), 51;
reaction to MVTU strike, 53;
criticism of by professors, 58;
and meetings with professoriat, 62, 64;
and closure of autonomous organizations, 64, 67, 77;
and Glavnauka (Main Scientific Administration), 81, 106;
and House of Litterateurs, 91;
and All-Russian Union of Writers, 95;
and Free Academy of Spiritual Culture, 110;
and Theosophical Society, 110;
and private publishing, 117;
and censorship, 124;
and Narodnoe prosveshchenie (weekly), 132. See also Glavprofobr
Narkomzdrav (Commissariat of Health), 26, 74–75, 76, 77, 83, 169
Narkomzem (Commissariat of Agriculture): “alien” specialists in, 20, 82, 83–85, 87, 88, 206, 255n120, 273n76, 311n120;
relations with Sel'skosoiuz, 85–86
National Center, 15–16
Nauka i shkola (publisher), 125, 287n38
Nevskii, V. I. (Petrograd Narkompros official), 141
NKVD (Commissariat of Internal Affairs), 156, 169, 202, 213;
surveillance and closure of professional, cultural, and spiritual societies, 69, 76–77, 78, 80–82, 87–88, 101–102, 109–14, 116, 142, 169, 212, 225, 283n109;
Petrograd branch, 101, 107;
and administrative exile, 180, 197–98, 211–13, 301n98, 304nn139, 141, 312n133, 314n157
Nonpartisanship (bespartiinost'), 18, 143, 163
Novaia Rossiia (journal), 146, 167, 225
Novaia russkaia kniga (journal), 175
Novikov, Mikhail, 43, 232;
arrest and deportation of, 9, 65, 185, 192–93, 195, 307n47;
as rector of MGU, 50;
as chair of Scientific Commission within VSNKh, 78–79, 271n39;
in emigration, 217, 222
Oberbürgermeister Hakken (steamship), 194, 215
Obshchestvennost' (public sphere): meaning and conception of, 3–7, 12, 242n19, 320n12;
Bolshevik views of and efforts to control, 10, 12, 19, 24, 29, 53, 66, 68, 73–75, 88, 97–99, 102–103, 112–14, 116, 145, 151–52, 168–69, 212, 214, 224–27;
and activity of intellectuals, 14–15, 22, 39, 68, 216;
and differing views of, 14–15, 24;
and the Anglo-Saxon position, 134;
and GPU questionnaire, 188
Odessa, professors, 9, 196, 198–99
Odintsov, Boris, 232;
arrest and deportation of, 2, 9, 65, 310n109;
as prorector of Petrograd University (PGU), 59;
in emigration, 217
Oganovskii, Nikolai, 83–84, 206, 311–12n123
OGPU. See GPU
Ol'denburg, S. F., 23, 26, 34
(p.332) Orthodox Church, 28, 90, 103–104, 110, 112;
and “Living Church” (renovationist), 104, 108, 110, 112, 158–59, 197, 299n48;
Church trials of 1922, 108, 157–60;
seizure of Church valuables for famine relief, 158
Osinskii, N. (Obolenskii, V. V.), 83–85, 86, 144, 311n119
Osokin, V. M., 232
Osorgin, Mikhail, 232;
arrest and deportation of, 8, 38, 100, 184, 188, 190–92, 205, 278n37, 307n47;
on famine relief committee, edits Pomoshch', 23–25, 28, 29, 35–36, 38, 97, 251n72;
in All-Russian Union of Writers and Writers' Book Shop, 25, 95–96, 100, 192;
on role of intellectuals, 28, 226;
exiled to Kostroma, 38;
in emigration, 215–16, 218–20, 226, 311n2, 315n8, 316n22, 317nn27, 32
Ovchinnikov, A. A., 9, 65, 196, 232, 308n70
Ozeretskovskii, V. S., 147, 176, 216, 232, 294n131
Ozerov, I. Kh., 174
Pal'chinskii, Pëtr, 9, 26, 38, 81–82;
quits All-Russian Association of Engineers (VAI), 81–82
Parshin, Nikolai E., 80–81, 205, 311n116
Pavlolv, I. P., 224, 285n16, 319n3
Pechat' i revoliutsiia (journal), 123, 144
Pereverzev, Valerian, 131–33
Peshekhonov, Aleksandr, 146, 232;
arrest and deportation of, 8–9, 174, 176, 192;
in emigration and “returnism,” 216, 219–22, 224, 316n26, 317nn27, 30, 35, 318n39;
Why Didn't I Emigrate?, 219
Peshkov, Maksim (Gorky's son), 32
Peshkova, Ekaterina, 14, 154, 204, 310n109
Petrishchev, A. B., 232;
on famine relief committee, 26;
arrest and deportation of, 100, 136, 147, 174, 176;
criticizes smenovekhovstvo, 135;
in emigration, 216, 218, 317n30
Petrograd Academic Center, 101
Petrograd authorities (Soviet and Party apparatus), 34, 100–101, 107, 117, 146, 155, 206, 254n108, 263n90, 265n111. See also Zinoviev, Grigorii; NKVD Petrograd branch
Petrograd Battle Organization affair, 14, 17–18, 36, 92, 152
Petrograd Technology Institute (PTI), 58, 203–204, 205, 310n108
Petrograd Union of Cooperative Publishers, 120
Petrograd University (PGU), 9, 43, 46, 47, 50, 58–59, 65, 310nn108109;
abolition of philosophy department, 47, 104;
student groups, 49;
Philosophical Society, 103, 106–107, 109
Petrograd, intellectual and literary community, 18, 90–92, 114, 123, 124
Petrovsko-Razumovskii Agricultural Academy, 172, 186, 302n107
Philosophical societies, 103–107, 109–10;
in provincial cities, 112–13. See also specific societies
Piatakov, Georgii, 127, 195
Pil'niak, Boris, 99, 100, 149, 206–207, 220, 259n144
Pirogov Society, 71–73, 168, 269n6;
abolished by Bolsheviks, 76–77, 81, 114, 269n8, 270n32, 271n35;
May 1922 Congress, 73;
Obshchestvennyi vrach (journal), 73, 75, 147;
branches in provincial cities, 113
Pletnev, Valerian, 124, 145
Pod znamenem marksizma (journal), 63, 123–24, 125, 143–44
Pokrovskii, Mikhail, 44, 46, 51, 96, 121, 259nn33, 39;
and changes to MGU administration, 50–51, 261n67, 262n74;
and professors' organizations, (p.333) 53–55;
and regulations on VUZ reform, 53, 55–56, 62–64, 267n134;
and changes to PGU administration, 60
Poletika, V. P., 232
Political Red Cross, 14, 154, 185, 204, 310–11n109
Polner, Sergei, 194, 232
Pomgol (VTsIK Central Commission to Aid the Starving), 21–22, 27, 31, 32, 37–38, 249n36
Pomoshch' (newspaper). See VKPG
Popular Socialists (NSs), 8–9, 15, 16, 174, 207–208, 219–20
Poslednie novosti (émigré newspaper), 216, 252n86, 266n128
Potekhin, Iu. N., 133
Potresov, A. N., 174
Pravda, 8, 29, 63, 144–45, 161, 169, 187
Preobrazhenskii, Evgenii A., 185, 299n57;
as head of Glavprofobr, 41, 45–46, 52, 56, 60–61, 305n14;
on Pravda editorial board, 63, 306n21;
criticizes O smene vekh, 136;
chided by Lenin, 164
Preussen (steamship), 1, 195, 309n76
Professional associations, 5–6, 67–88 passim; 168, 170, 301n96
Professoriat, 257n10;
changes in makeup and purges during NEP, 4, 46, 48, 66, 212–13, 260n49;
defense of autonomy, opposition to VUZ reforms, 41–44, 46–47, 52–53, 55, 56, 114, 142, 152, 168, 188–90;
unions and professional groups, 41, 53–55, 65–67, 114, 169;
and February Revolution/Provisional Government, 42–43;
and October Revolution, 43;
and relations with students, 48–50;
Communist professors, 63
Professors: arrests of, 43, 45
Profsoiuzy. See Trade Unions
Prokopovich, Sergei, 232;
arrest, internal exile, and deportation of, 9, 15, 35–38, 164–65, 185, 300n74;
on famine relief committee (VKPG), 20–25, 27, 29, 32, 34, 249n46;
as Dean of MGU Juridical Faculty, 46, 259n34;
in emigration, 217, 218
Proletkult, 98, 124
Public sphere, 11–12, 244–45n41. See also Obshchestvennost'
Publishers, private and cooperative, 97, 114, 115–24 passim, 149–50, 168, 175, 295n151. See also specific publishers
Pumpianskii, L. M., 147, 233, 294n132
Pushkin, Aleksandr: commemoration of and homages to, 92, 94, 119, 128, 276n20
Rabkrin (Workers' and Peasants' Inspectorate), 79, 101, 122, 273n76
Rabpros (Educational Workers' Union), 53–54, 58, 66, 70, 82, 223
Radchenko, L. N., 174
Radek, Karl, 79, 161, 200, 250n52
Radlov, E. L., 106, 285n16
Religious and spiritual “sectarians,” 9, 90, 103, 109–12, 282n101, 283n107
Remizov, Nikolai, 92, 99
Reshchikova, Vera, 193, 195
Reshetov, I. F., 191
Riabushinskii, Pavel, 30
Riappo, Ia. P., 46
Romodanovskii, N. P., 233
Rozanov, Dr., 174, 303n116
Rozenberg, Vladimir, 8, 176, 233
Rozhkov, Nikolai A., 174, 208–10, 312n138
RTO (Russian Technical Society), 78, 81–82, 113;
Economic branch (Eleventh branch), 107, 167, 272n57. See also Ekonomist (journal of Eleventh branch)
Russian Theatrical Society, 82
Rybnikov, A. A., 20, 25, 38, 87;
criticizes Soviet agricultural policy, 84
Rykov, Aleksei, 23–24, 32, 38, 79–80, 82, 294n43, 287n36, 310n100
(p.334) Sabashnikov, M. V., 23, 24, 250n51
Sadyrin, P. A., 20, 25
Safarov, G. I.., 100, 306n20
Sakharov, A. V., 190, 307n35
Samsonov, T. P. (head of GPU Secret Department), 156, 159, 162, 206, 208
Savich, Konstantin, 204
Scientific Society of Marxists, 111
Second Moscow University (Second MGU), 105, 172
Sekal', G. A., 196, 233
Sel'skokhaziaistvennaia zhizn' (official agricultural weekly), 85
Sel'skosoiuz (All-Russian Union of Agricultural Cooperatives), 26, 85–86, 178, 205–206
Selivanov, D. F., 233, 310n109
Semashko, Nikolai, 78;
as Commissar of Health, 21, 167–68, 177;
and famine relief committee, 21, 23;
as representative of Pomgol, 27;
and concerns about physicians' congress, 73–75, 141, 167–68;
and Pirogov Society, 73, 75–77, 271n35;
against deportation of Stepun, 177
Serapion Brothers, 93–94, 98, 99
Sereda, S. P., 176
Severnye dni (almanac journal), 123
Severokustar' (Northern Union of Craft Cooperatives), 87, 204, 291n87
Shakhty trial (1928), 82
Shimkevich, V. M., 46–47, 59
Shishkin, M. D., 9, 233
Shklovskii, Viktor, 89, 91–93, 217, 279n58
Shmidt, Otto Iu., 45, 258n26
Shpet, G. G., 104, 106
Sigirskii, A. I., 9, 87, 205, 233
Smena vekh (A Change of Signposts). See Smenovekhovstvo
Smenovekhovstvo (Changing signposts movement): as part of Bolshevik policy to attract spetsy, 93, 133–34, 137;
criticized at House of Litterateurs, 93–94, 98, 116, 124, 133, 136;
criticized in journals and in O smene vekh, 133–36, 290n84;
Nakanune (newspaper), 133, 200, 225;
Bolshevik views of and policy toward, 135–36, 146, 225;
intellectuals' views of, 188–89, 217
Smidovich, Për, 33, 38, 186
Smilga, I. T., 210
Socialist Academy, 47
Socialist Revolutionaries (SRs), 15–17, 43, 49, 69, 143, 149, 157, 168, 174, 212, 313n150;
prominent in and purged from agricultural cooperatives, 83, 85–87, 154, 160;
SR show trial (1922) and arrests, 85, 143, 153, 157, 160–63, 204, 299nn51, 5758, 310n100;
encouraged to disavow party, 160, 162, 209–10, 300n67, 313n139
Sologub, Fëdor, 91, 102, 275n7
Sorokin, Pitirim, 233;
arrest and deportation of, 8, 65, 147, 178, 184, 192–93, 195;
on the “Anglo-Saxon position,” 4, 7, 67, 134, 143, 243n24;
criticism of the Petrograd Battle Organization executions, 18–19;
criticism of Bolshevik regime, 40, 47;
on Dostoevsky, 130;
on publishing and censorship, 120;
criticizes smenovekhovstvo, 134;
analysis of postrevolutionary Russian society and famine, 137–39, 178, 218, 226, 277n28, 291n93;
Bolshevik response to his critique, 140–41;
prohibition of his “I Believe, O Lord,” 146;
under pseudonym P. Chaadaev, 148;
in emigration, 218, 220, 222, 226, 317–18n37;
on Zinoviev, 248n22
Sosnovskii, Lev, 29
Soviet government: All-Russian Executive Committee (VTsIK), 21, 22, 86, 169, 173, 179–80, 186, 211, 221, 253n103, 304n139;
Council of People's Commissars (Sovnarkom), 51, 60, 61, 64, 309n83
(p.335) Spengler, Oswald, Decline of the West, 287n40, 287n44;
Russian reaction to, 105, 116, 122, 125–28;
Bolshevik response to Russian “Spenglerites,” 127–28, 163, 288nn48, 52
Spetsy (“Bourgeois Specialists”): Bolshevik support and cultivation of, 7, 19, 45, 70, 78, 80–82, 83, 93, 102, 134, 137, 145, 175, 256n132;
statism among, 68, 71, 77, 80, 84, 140, 243n20, 258n27;
Bolshevik distrust of and surveillance of, 75, 77, 78, 88, 114, 167–70, 212;
involvement in VSNKh Scientific-Technical Department (NTO), 78–79;
involvement in Narkomzem, 82–85, 87;
arrests of, 202;
Dzerzhinskii as protector of, 202;
appeals on behalf of, 206;
Bolshevik differentiation of, 224
Stalin, Iosif V., 8, 61, 160, 165, 168, 174, 179, 187, 207, 209, 226, 266n120
Stanislavskii, Konstantin, 22–23, 25, 34
Stankevich, K. F., 171
Stepun, Fëdor, 89, 137, 233, 276n16;
and Free Academy of Spiritual Culture, 104–105, 125;
arrest and deportation of, 109, 177, 183–84, 189, 195–96, 306–7n28;
on Spengler, 126, 128;
and “Bereg” publisher, 147;
in emigration, 215–16, 219, 222
Stoiunina, M. N., 194
Stoliarov, M. P., 104
Stratonov, I. A., 196
Stratonov, Vsevolod, 53, 64, 233;
arrest and deportation of, 9, 65, 177, 184–85, 188–90, 192–94, 306n24, 307nn45, 47;
as dean of MGU Physics-Math Faculty, 51, 60, 307n47;
in emigration, 217, 222
Struve, Pëtr, 5, 221, 318n42
Students and student groups, 257n10, 261nn5758;
Bolshevik concerns about, 27, 42, 48–50, 62, 65, 167, 257n6, 261n60, 302n110;
criticism of Bolsheviks, 43, 49;
arrest and deportation of student leaders, 49, 66, 172–73, 185–86, 302nn107108;
Communist students and student cells, 49–50, 52–53, 57, 65–66, 212, 260n54, 267n134;
purges of, 66, 169, 172, 213;
Christian Student Union, 103, 107–10, 113;
relations with professors, 192–94;
in Ukraine, 198–99;
in emigration, 217, 315n15
Stukov, I., 29
Supreme Council of the People's Economy. See VSNKh
Tactical Center, 14, 16–17, 152, 163, 178, 246n11, 305n12
Tagantsev, V. N., 18, 19, 247n21
Tager, A. S., 204
Tan (Bogoraz), V. G., 133
Tarasevich, L. A., 25, 35, 73, 269n15, 271n35
Tarle, E. V., 93
Teodorovich, I. A., 20, 23, 202
Theosophical Society, 103, 104, 107, 110, 281n91
Tiapkin, Nikolai, 178
Tikhon, Patriarch, 21, 27–28, 158–59, 298n46
Tikhvinskii, M. M., 18
Tishchenko, I. A., 61
Tolstaia, Aleksandra, 23, 197
Tolstoi, Aleksei, 99, 217
Tolstoyans, 9, 36, 37, 90, 103, 107, 108–109, 111, 112, 197;
Society of True Freedom in Memory of L. N. Tolstoy, 108, 110;
United Council of Religious Groups, 109, 110;
Moscow Vegetarian Society, 110, 111, 113, 282–83n106, 283n112. See also Bulgakov, Valentin
Tomskii, Mikhail: as head of VTsSPS (central trade union organ), 70, 271n48;
and physicians and spetsy 72–74, 168–69, 171, 270n32, 301n96;
(p.336) as possible supporter of Pirogov Society, 76
Trade Unions (profsoiuzy), 69–71, 73–74, 82–83, 149, 271n48. See also Professional associations; VTsSPS
Troshin, G. Ia., 196, 233
Trotsky, Lev, 8, 45, 70, 114, 149–50, 155;
on literary politics, 98, 225;
on intellectuals and deportations, 123–24, 142, 169, 186, 209, 224, 226;
leads anti-Church campaigns, 158–59
Trubetskoi, Sergei E., 233;
and Tactical Center, 17, 246n11;
arrest and deportation of, 185, 189, 192, 194, 307nn30, 45
Tsiurupa, A. D., 60–61, 62, 63
TsKUBU (Central Commission to Improve the Lot of Scholars). See KUBU
Tsudek, V. L., 61
Tsvetaeva, Marina, 61
Tsvetkov, N. A., 233
Ugrimov, Aleksandr, 25–26, 233;
arrest and deportation of, 9, 38, 86, 183, 191–93, 195, 272n57;
criticizes Soviet agricultural policy, 84;
return to USSR, 222
Ukraine: deportation of intellectuals from, 9–10, 179, 196, 198–200;
higher education in, 45–46, 198
Union for the Regeneration of Russia, 16
Union of Belletrists, 91, 275n7
Union of Poets, 101–102, 113
Union of Writers. See All-Russian Union of Writers
United Council of Professors in Petrograd, 53–55, 58, 59, 64, 263n90
Unshlikht, Iosif: and repressive measures and deportations of intellectuals, 18, 35–36, 38, 164–65, 169, 173–77, 179–80, 191, 199, 202–203, 205–206, 208, 211, 309n83;
and purges at VUZy, 64, 213;
and repressive measures against physicians, 76, 170–71;
and purges of agricultural cooperatives, 86;
and anti-intellectual campaigns, 142, 154, 169;
and arrests and deportations of Mensheviks, 154–56, 211–13, 313n151;
and anti-Church campaigns, 158–59;
and defense of SRs
role in censorship, 170, 287n36, 288n52, 294n140;
and deportation of students, 185–86;
and expansion of GPU jurisdiction, 213
Ustrialov, N. V., 133
Utrenniki (journal/almanac), 99, 116, 124, 137, 143, 145–46, 293n128;
shut down, 147, 179
Vaganian, V., 127–28
VAI (All-Russian Association of Engineers), 78, 80–82, 112, 113, 271n47
VAPP (All-Russian Proletarian Writers' Association), 97
Vekhi (Signposts or Landmarks), 5, 8, 125, 127;
and smenovekhovstvo, 133–36
Velikhov, P. A., 38, 65, 313n149
Veniamin, Metropolitan, 158–60
Verkhovskii, G. A., 171
Vernadskii, V. I., 79
Vestnik literatury (journal): censored, 99;
articles published in, 116;
publication of, 120;
and criticism of censorship, 121;
shut down 123–24;
and criticism of smenovekhovstvo, 133;
edited by Dalmat Lutokhin, 137, 146
Vestnik sel'skogo khoziaistva (Bulletin of Agriculture), 83, 179
Vigdorchik, N. A., 72–74, 171, 174, 303n116
Visloukh, S. M., 233
Vitiazev, P. N. (F. I. Sedenko), 138, 195;
as advocate for private publishing, 118, 120, 285nn10, 16;
distributes questionnaire on censorship, 120
(p.337) VKPG (All-Russian Committee to Aid the Starving): leaders arrested and exiled, 9, 35–39, 154, 164, 172, 253n103, 254n116, 255n130;
formation and operation of, 15, 19–39 passim, 249n36, 252–53n89;
Pomoshch' (newspaper), 25, 27, 28–29, 252n86;
Petrograd branch, 26, 34, 254n108;
provincial branches, 26–27;
student sections and involvement, 27, 186;
disbanded, 68, 73;
and involvement with members of other associations, 85, 96, 105, 109, 117;
and Bolshevik concerns about, 152, 252n81;
criticized by Sorokin, 218
VOA (All-Russian Society of Agronomists), 82–83, 87–88
Vol'fila (Free Philosophical Association), 103, 104, 107, 280n73;
Moscow branch, 104, 280n76;
shut down by NKVD in 1924, 110, 282n105
Volgin, V. P.: as rector of MGU, 51, 57, 60, 65, 185, 310n104;
and negotiations with PGU professors' council, 59;
as chair of rectors' conferences, 64, 267n138;
appeals on behalf of arrested professors, 203, 208
Volkovyskii, Nikolai, 233;
arrest and deportation of, 8, 100, 147, 176, 191;
on famine relief committee, 26, 38;
as leader of House of Litterateurs, 90, 133, 176;
in Petrograd branch of Union of Writers, 100;
in emigration, 315n8
Voronskii, A. K., 99, 100, 102, 122, 146;
editor of Krasnaia nov', 98–99, 119, 123, 206;
supports fellow-travellers, 102, 278n44;
on publishing and censorship, 119, 122–24;
and Zamiatin, 122, 206–207;
on O smene vekh, 136
Vostrov, D. I., 171
Vozvrashchanstvo (“returnism”), 218–22, 317n27, 318n47
Vsemediksantrud (Medical and Sanitary Workers' Union), 69, 75–76, 270n28;
physicians' section and its conference, 71–75, 82, 113, 167–68, 171, 269n13, 301n100, 302n105;
arrests of physicians' section leaders, 75–76, 170–72, 302n105
Vserabis (official artists' union), 101
VSNKh (Supreme Council of the National Economy), 45, 202, 211;
Scientific-Technical Department (NTO), 78–79, 271n39;
State Commission for the Electrification of Russia (GOELRO), 79
VSPOV (All-Russian Union of Professional Associations of Physicians), 71–72
VTsSPS (All-Russian Central Council of Trade Unions), 70, 74, 75, 77, 82, 170, 171
VUZy (higher educational institutions), 39, 40–66 passim, 257n18;
under Tsarist regime, 42;
during 1917, 42–43;
during Civil War, 43–45;
formation of Faculties of Social Science (FONy), 44, 46–48, 66;
“Worker Faculties” (rabfaki) in, 44, 48–49;
curricular reform in, 46–47, 256n3, 259n39, 260nn4647;
abolition of philosophy departments, 47;
Soviet reforms and control over, 50–53, 55–66 passim, 172, 189–90, 224, 256n3 263nn91, 96;
1921 charter (regulations), revised 1922, 55–56, 65, 263nn9698 264n102, 267n134
Vvedenskii, A. I., 106, 159
Vysheslavtsev, Boris, 105, 106, 280n76, 282n103
Weiner, Doug, 227
Workers' and Peasants' Inspectorate. See Rabkrin
Writers' Book Shop. See All-Russian Union of Writers
Zadruga (publisher), 116, 147, 193, 208, 216, 294n131
(p.338) Zaitsev, Boris: on famine relief committee, 23, 25, 36, 249nn43, 46;
on All-Russian Union of Writers, 25, 96–97, 100, 121;
leaves Russia in 1922, 100;
story rejected by censor, 121
Zakat Evropy. See Spengler, Oswald
Zamiatin, Evgenii, 149, 196, 289n57;
arrested and almost deported, 9, 100, 176, 178, 189, 205–206, 306n27, 309n82, 312nn124, 129;
on famine relief committee, 26, 38, 97;
in Petrograd literary societies, 91–94, 98, 178;
essays, “I Am Afraid” and “It Is Time,” 118–20;
novel We, 118, 206–207, 312n126
Zaraiskii, N. I., 183, 191
Zelinskii, F. F., 147
Zemstvo activists, 20, 21, 269n6
Zhbankov, D. N., 73, 76–77
Zinoviev, Grigorii: and deportations of intellectuals, 8, 186–87, 205, 209;
and Petrograd Battle Organization affair, 18;
on neutrality, 24;
relations with Gorky, 26, 34, 256n133;
and famine relief committee, 34, 38;
and PGU council elections, 60;
and Workers' Opposition, 70;
and antiintellectual campaigns, 86, 114, 116, 136, 155, 177, 179, 183, 200–201, 210, 223–24, 292n112, 302n105;
as nemesis of intelligentsia, 96, 120, 179, 184, 190, 194, 248n22;
as Petrograd Party chief, 96, 100–101, 120, 206;
shuts down House of Litterateurs, 100–101;
and smenovekhovstvo, 136;
and speech at Twelfth Party Conference, 142–44, 146, 151
Zoshchenko, Mikhail, 92, 94
Zubashev, Efim, 147, 176, 178, 203–205, 217, 234, 294n132
Zvorykin, V. V., 234