Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Before L.A.Race, Space, and Municipal Power in Los Angeles, 1781-1894$

David Samuel Torres-Rouff

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780300141238

Published to Yale Scholarship Online: January 2014

DOI: 10.12987/yale/9780300141238.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM YALE SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.yale.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Yale University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in YSO for personal use (for details see www.yale.universitypressscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 16 January 2019

(p.339) Index

(p.339) Index

Source:
Before L.A.
Publisher:
Yale University Press

Note: An italicized f or n following a page number indicates a figure or endnote, respectively.

Abbott, Mercedes, 214–15, 216
Abila Springs, 147
Africans, 32, 40, 41, 73–74, 264, 282n24, 322n48. See also blacks (negros); skin tone
agrarian state, 114, 162, 298n72
agriculture: commodification of, 161–62, 165, 220;
droughts and, 168, 170;
La Fiesta and, 4;
founding period and, 2, 27, 33, 34–35;
Free Land Law and, 86;
racialization and, 285n55. See also irrigation; land
Aguilar, Cristobál: anti-Chinese massacre and, 195;
bilingualism of, 5;
elections and, 22, 78, 179, 180, 197–203, 319n29;
home of, 245f;
Independence Day celebration and, 134;
on land, 288n76;
Los Angeles Star on, 200, 202;
as mayor, 80, 177–79, 181;
water and, 80, 116, 155–56, 177–78, 307n59;
as zanjero, 177, 202, 319n29
Alameda Street, 147, 151, 202, 211, 223, 233, 234, 235, 236f
alcaldes: communal ethos and, 52, 72, 82, 301n103;
Indian, 297n52;
as judges, 43, 48–51, 89–90, 286nn62 and 65, 289nn89, 90, 91, 298n66, 301nn103104, 302n105;
role and history of, 42–44, 286nn65 and 67, 288nn71 and 73, 301n103. See also elections; mayors; municipal government and public policy
Alexander, David W., 78, 124
Alipás, Grevacio, 63
Aliso Street and tract, 143, 159, 229f, 315n56
Almaguer, Tomás, 17, 136, 276n50
Alta California, 2, 23, 24, 25
Alta California (newspaper), 303n16
Alvarado, Juan Bautista, 40, 58, 104, 106, 107, 109, 269n4, 289n85
Alvarado de Pico, Nachita, 42f
(p.340) Alvitre, Felipe, 94, 96, 99, 101, 109, 126, 302nn4 and 6
anti-Chinese massacre (1871): commercial response to, 215–16;
context and causes of, 183–94, 196–98, 320n36, 321n47, 323n56, 324n64;
described, 181–83;
elites and, 195–96;
forgetting of, 5, 7;
interculture and, 194–95;
racialization and, 21, 173
anti-Chinese riots (1887), 233, 234
Antonio, Juan, 71–72, 297n52
Arcadia Block, 142f, 143, 146, 217
arson, 233–34, 333nn86 and 89, 336n116
Asians, 15, 254, 322nn4849. See also Chinese
Avila, Eric, 189, 322n48
Avila family and adobe, 231, 274n41
ayuntamiento (town council). See municipal government and public policy
Aztecs, 3, 263
Baker, R. S., 209–10, 213
Baker Block, 209–10f, 214f
Bandini, Juan, 104–7, 305nn32, 33, 34, 306n39
Bandini de Stearns, Arcadia, 62, 141–42f, 204, 209–10
banishment, 50, 79, 290n99
Banning, Phineas, 134, 145
Barton, James R., 89, 94, 96
Bath Street, 139, 209, 326n13
Bear Flag Party, 295n38
Beaudry, Prudent, 143, 176, 177–78, 315n56
Bee, F. A., 233, 333n87
Bell, Horace, 77, 199, 200, 304n22, 314n41
Bella Union Hotel, 143
Bhabha, Homi K., 279n57
Bilderrain, Jesus, 182, 194
bilingualism: Aguilar and, 5;
Chinese, 184;
El Clamor and, 307n59;
criminal procedures and, 89;
Dryden and, 110, 134;
education and, 312n9;
fiestas and, 218;
municipal government and, 109, 308n67;
theaters and, 215, 328n29. See also English language; Spanish language
blacks (negros), 25, 33, 130, 252, 254, 337n14. See also Africans; skin tone
Blomquist, Leonard, 302n105
blue-ribbon commission, 160–62
Blue Wing Saloon, 182
bonds, 224, 225f, 234
boosterism: Chinese and, 268, 320n36, 333n82;
La Fiesta and, 261–62, 265;
infrastructure and, 220, 226, 261;
racialization and, 103–4, 257–60, 304n25
borderlands: Ethington on, 278n55;
homicides and, 88;
interculture and, 58, 91–93;
land and, 83;
L.A. School and, 17;
municipal government and, 49;
national identity and, 271nn23 and 25;
racialization and, 8–14, 18–19;
water and, 175
Bourbon reforms, 275n45, 288n71
Brown, Dave: extralegal justice and, 94–97;
interculture and, 97–103, 126, 191, 193;
racialization and, 303n8;
Star on, 100–102, 107, 303n14;
stay of execution of, 94, 96, 98, 302n4
brownness, 11, 126, 127, 140. See also racialization; skin tone
buildings, preservation, 257–59
bull-and-bear fights, 30, 74, 198, 324n70
bullfights, 74, 118, 198, 199
Burlingame Treaty, 335n103
Burns, James, 182, 193, 323n61
business districts. See commercial districts
Butts, Williams, 97, 98–99, 303n11
(p.341) California, State of: annexation, 66, 103;
Brown's stay of execution and, 94, 96, 98, 302n4;
criminal proceedings and, 289n90;
land and, 84;
loans and, 160;
Mexican Californians and, 108, 118;
sewers and, 224;
statehood, 92;
streets and, 331n68, 332nn80 and 82;
and water policy, 174, 175, 318nn17, 19, and 20
California Constitutional Convention, 72–74, 297n56
California Doctrine, 318n17, 319n20
California Junta de Fomento, 283n41
californios (hijos del país, rancheros): agriculturalists versus, 285n55;
arrest records, 123;
ayuntamiento and, 52;
cloth and, 40;
defined, 9, 11, 26;
disfranchisement of, 109;
drought and, 168, 170–71;
Evening Journal on, 104–5, 107;
gambling and, 103, 292n16;
Graham's militia and, 294n35;
Indians and, 38, 54, 206, 284n49, 305n35;
interculture and, 285n52, 336n114;
intermarriage and, 19;
Jenkins and, 309n82;
juries and, 301n101;
land and, 7, 106, 299n83;
Mexican identity and, 298n65;
mission secularization and, 292n18;
Pico House and, 207;
Plaza and, 250;
racialization and, 36–42, 53, 54, 171, 265;
Ramirez on, 104, 304nn2728;
social position and, 142;
Sonoratown and, 140;
Vagrancy Act and, 108;
wealth of, 13–14;
as whites, 291n8;
Calle de los Negros (“Negro Alley”), 185f, 235f, 236f;
censuses and, 327n21;
Chinese and, 184, 185, 190–91, 209, 211;
destruction of, 230–39, 257, 314n41, 332n82, 334nn9293, 336n105;
Mexican Californians and, 194;
name change of, 333n83;
regrading of, 159;
residences and, 212, 326nn18 and 20, 327n21;
social life and recreation, 139, 215–16;
Times and, 257
Campo Cahuenga treaty, 67
Canton Bazaar, 212f
capitalist state, 114, 162, 260, 299n72, 332n76
Carmillo, Francisco, 89
Carpenter, Lemuel, 60, 64
Carriaga, Fernando, 121–22, 123, 126, 309n73
Carrillo, José Antonio, 14, 49, 72, 206, 290n91
Carrillo Adobe, 13, 29–30, 31f, 206, 274n41, 281n20
Carson, George, 130, 147
Cartesian space, 22, 32, 47, 52–53, 146, 208, 238, 275n46, 332n77. See also space
Casas, Mariá Raquél, 17, 279n57, 280n10, 291n6, 294nn34 and 36, 327n28
casta system. See racialization
Catholic Church and Catholicism: European Americans and, 19;
holidays, 138;
hydraulic ram and, 154;
Indians and, 34, 282n27, 283n41;
Mexican citizenship and, 60;
Plaza and, 204;
racialization and, 34
cattle hide and tallow trade: californios and, 39–40;
European Americans and, 19, 60;
gente de/sin razón and, 37–38;
interculture and, 92–93;
mission secularization and, 292n18;
prices, 136, 171, 206, 317n10;
statistics, 61, 293n24;
Stearns and, 62;
warehouses, 142
Cayton, Horace R., 276n49
Celis, Eugelio de, 181, 199, 200, 201
cemeteries, 51
(p.342) censuses. See population and statistics
Central Park. See Pershing Square
Chamber of Commerce, 267–68
Chavez, Julian, 78, 181, 294n33, 296n45, 301n101
Chávez-Garciá, Miroslava, 17, 49, 289n85, 294n31
Chicago, 277n52
Chicago School, 278n54
Chico, Mariano, 2, 62
Childs, O. W., 143
Childs, O. W., Mrs., 1, 3
Chinatown, 139, 212, 218–19, 250, 251;
population of, 240, 331n70;
public sewer and street improvements and, 223–25, 226, 238–39, 246f, 247f, 332n76;
removal efforts and relocation of, 231–39, 252, 257–58, 267, 333nn82 and 86, 336nn105 and 116
Chinese, 8, 16, 186f, 252, 274n37;
anti-Chinese groups, 217;
arson suit and, 233–34, 333nn86 and 89;
background, 183–92, 211–12;
celebrations and, 218–19;
commercial enterprises, 184–85, 187, 215–16;
economic class and, 212;
La Fiesta and, 5–6, 262, 263, 267–68;
gambling and, 184, 187, 216, 234, 236f, 328n34;
infrastructure and, 250;
labor and, 321n47, 334n95;
land and, 331n70;
laws and, 335n98;
legal maneuvers and, 187, 191–92, 323n54;
Los Angeles Times and, 237, 238, 251, 329nn47, 48, 49, 335nn99, 100, 101, 336n105;
Mexican Californians and, 189, 190, 191, 192–94, 196–97, 321n42, 323nn55 and 58;
population and statistics, 183–84, 211–12, 240, 326nn18, 19, and 21, 331n70;
racialization and, 9, 12, 185–87, 189–90, 322n49;
recreation and, 215–16;
sewers and, 221–25, 238–39, 239–40, 246f, 249, 336nn1078;
social belonging and, 321n42;
streets and, 246f, 247f, 249, 256, 334n93, 336n105;
United States and, 236, 237, 334n95, 335n103;
ward system and, 179, 191;
Chinese Merchants Association, 267–68
Chinese New Year festival, 251
Chinese Six Companies, 187, 233
Choy, Ah, 181, 188, 192, 323n59
Christianity, 336n111
Cinco de Mayo, 218
citizenship: brownness and, 127, 140;
Gabrielino-Tongva and, 283nn4041;
historiography and, 18;
Indians and, 38, 283nn4041;
interculture and, 76;
Mexican Californians and, 173;
Mexican Independence and, 29, 36;
Mexican period and, 60;
racialization and, 11, 20, 44–45, 127, 135;
soldiers and, 297n48;
U.S., 72–74, 76
city council (ayuntamiento; Common Council). See municipal government and public policy
city finances, 117, 147, 158–60, 166, 167, 170, 203, 308n67, 387n69. See also bonds; fees and taxes; loans
civic ideals: buildings and, 257;
defined, 287n68;
Democratic Party and, 168;
economic factors, 107;
extralegal violence and, 126, 131;
La Fiesta and, 268;
floods and, 170–71;
S. Foster and, 119–20;
Thomas Foster and, 111;
founding and Mexican periods, 42–54, 57, 174;
Free Land Law and, 85–87, 92;
infrastructure and, 82, 146, 149, 160–63, 165, 167, 226, 255–56;
Mexican period and, 25–26, 42–52, 56–58, 57;
municipal government and, 42–52, 82–83, 92, 95, 110, 152, (p.343) 153, 156–58, 163, 166, 170, 317n10;
power and, 287n68;
racialization and, 26, 53, 74, 91–92, 165, 173, 201, 249, 254, 260, 287n68, 317n10;
U.S., 57, 79;
U.S. immigrants and, 60, 62–63, 64, 65, 67;
ward system and, 179, 180, 181;
civil engineers, 111, 113
civil rights movement, 276n49
Civil War, 172
El Clamor Público: business advertising in, 139, 145;
city finances and, 159;
on 1856 election, 118–19, 128–30, 308n64, 311n11;
on Independence Day celebrations, 134, 135, 311nn1, 2, 3;
on Jenkins-Ruis incident, 121, 125, 126, 308nn7172, 310nn9293;
party politics and, 128, 129, 130, 311n100
clothing, 35, 38, 39, 40, 41
Code of Conduct (1787), 35
Cohn, Bernard, 237, 335nn9899
colonialism. See Spain and colonialism
Comicrabit, Victoria, 73, 297n55
comisionados, 13, 29, 51, 286n67, 290n100
commerce: droughts and, 170;
founding period and, 19, 26, 35;
global, 8, 37;
interculture and, 56, 60, 65, 74, 75, 77, 173;
missions and, 292n18, 293n24;
municipal government and, 44, 47, 79;
racialization and, 40, 54, 78;
spatial mestizaje and, 8, 14;
commercial districts: Chinese, 184–85, 190;
European-American, 141–46, 244–47, 248f, 250;
interculture and, 145–46;
Mexican Californians and, 140;
Sonoratown, 244f, 246f;
space and, 141–46;
ward system and, 179. See also commercialization; Plaza (Los Angeles)
commercial enterprises, 26, 187, 206–7, 215–16, 286 n66, 321 n47
commercialization: californios and, 107, 109, 117;
Chinese and, 234, 236, 237, 238, 239, 268;
La Fiesta and, 4, 7, 264, 267, 268;
infrastructure and, 136, 149–51, 158–65, 162–63, 220–26, 239, 256;
infrastructure inequality and, 167–68, 226, 233, 239, 240, 244, 247, 248f;
interculture and, 19–21, 137, 165–68, 208–19;
Mexican Californians and, 163, 168;
municipal government and, 165–68, 175–78;
Plaza and, 30, 141–46, 206, 209, 210, 216, 247, 249, 274n41;
racialization and, 57, 203, 255, 259–60, 305n36;
Sonoratown and, 239, 247;
space and, 141–46;
Times on, 237, 257. See also civic ideals; commodification
Commercial Street, 143, 151, 314n39
Committee of Twenty, 121, 122, 125
commodification: agriculture of, 161–62, 165, 220;
civic ideals and, 165, 175, 177–78, 256, 260;
commodification of water: capitalist state and, 299n72;
domestic and drinking water, 220, 289n83;
Dryden's pipes and, 146–49;
European Americans and, 165;
interculture and, 80, 114–15, 131–32, 152–53, 174, 177–78;
irrigation and, 152–57, 162, 168, 221–22;
Mexican Californians and, 162, 175;
racialization and, 176–77, 256;
space and, 221;
Toberman and, 203. See also fees and taxes; mills; waterwheels
(p.344) Common Council. See municipal government and public policy
communal ethos: agriculture and, 27;
Aguilar and, 177–78;
alcaldes and, 44, 52, 72, 82, 301n103;
anti-Chinese massacre and, 324n64;
dams and, 153;
founding period and, 50–51;
individuals versus, 57, 92, 256, 289n79;
laws and justice and, 49–50, 79, 97, 290nn94, 97, and 99;
municipal government and public policy and, 27, 45–46, 48, 53, 64, 137, 222, 289n79, 307n58;
size of city and, 84. See also irrigation; water, communal ethos and
“Consistency,” 123–24, 310n87
constructivism, 10, 12
Coronel, Antonio Franco: bilingual public education and, 312n9;
Chinese and, 183, 197;
Democratic Party and, 130, 311n100;
elections to office, 78, 172;
Independence Day celebration and, 134;
interculture and, 82–83, 134;
irrigation and, 64, 82, 154, 294n33, 316n64;
land commissioners and, 300n87;
Los Angeles Street and, 314n41;
Temple project and, 314n37;
vigilantism and, 309n79
Coronel, Ygnacio, 49
Coronel Adobe (Coronel Block), 31f;
anti-Chinese riot and, 182;
Calle de los Negros and, 215, 231, 257;
Chinese and, 183, 184, 188, 193, 195, 197, 211;
image of, 185f;
theater and, 215
Coronel family, 169
Corpus Christi celebrations, 30, 138
Cota, Rafaela, 63, 66, 143
cowboys, 3, 26
criminal proceedings and juries: alcaldes and, 43, 48–51, 89–90, 286nn62 and 65, 289nn89, 90, 91, 298n66, 301nn1034, 302n105;
anti-Chinese massacre and, 196–97, 324n68;
Antonio and, 297n52;
Brown and Alvitre and, 96;
European American, 124;
extralegal justice versus, 94, 303n9, 324n67;
interculture and, 89–91, 301n101, 302n105;
Jenkins trial, 310n88;
lack of, 56;
lynch mobs and, 94;
Mexican Californian elite and, 301n101;
Mexican Californians and, 310n88;
patriarchy and, 63–64;
vigilantism and, 324n67. See also extralegal justice; justice
criollos (creoles), 25, 32, 33
La Crónica (newspaper), 199, 329n44
Cronon, William, 270n15, 277n52
Cuyas, Antonio, 213
dams: civic ideals and, 153, 160–63;
floods and, 168, 170, 175, 176;
municipal government and, 160, 314n47, 316n64;
Nichols and, 152;
of Plaza spring, 175, 176;
of Porciuncula River, 2, 174
Day, William, 62, 293n27
Dead Man's Island, 77
death penalties, 63, 89, 90
deeds, 13, 67–68, 83, 154, 288nn73 and 76, 293n22, 306n42
Delaney, David, 219, 274n38, 330n58
Democratic Party, 21, 22, 128, 129, 130, 165, 168, 180, 184
“The Destiny of California,” 103, 106, 109, 337n2
Deverell, William, 17–18, 140, 270nn8, 15, and 19, 309n81, 337n17
diseases, 280n3
divorce, 50, 294n34
Dominguez, Manuel, 49, 72, 145, 146
Downey, John G. (Juan), 89, 119, 129, 130, 143, 199, 311n98, 327n27
Downey Block, 143, 147, 217
Drake, St. Clair, 276n49
droughts, 168, 170–71;
californios and, (p.345) 13;
communal water rights and, 319n20;
founding period and, 27;
interculture and, 136;
irrigation and sewers and, 222;
rancheros and, 170–72, 206;
water rights and, 173–74, 175
Drown, Ezra, 110, 112, 115–16, 119
Dryden, William G.: background, 146–47;
bilingualism and, 110, 134;
McLaughlin's waterwheel and, 166–67;
Rivas/Savaleta and, 89;
water pipes project of, 146–49, 153, 155, 160, 163, 164f, 313n31
DuBois, W. E. B., 276n49
duels, 69
Durán, Narcisco, 38, 284n50, 290n100
Eaton, Benjamin S., 155–56, 163, 177, 315n54
economic factors: borderlands and, 271n25;
Chinese and, 189, 212;
civic ideals and, 107;
European Americans and, 61, 261;
floods and, 169–70;
interculture and, 74, 76, 92–93, 136;
intermarriage and, 65;
Los Angeles Star on, 103;
Mexican Californians and, 171–72;
space and, 21, 162;
work and leisure and, 213
Eddy v. Simpson (1853), 319n20
education and schools: bilingual, 312n9;
S. Foster on, 119;
Thomas Foster on, 110, 111;
interculture and, 137–38, 146;
school commissioners, 308n67;
space and, 136;
Spanish language and, 217
elections, 325nn77 and 79;
interculture and, 78, 118–19, 317n10;
elites: anti-Chinese massacre and, 195, 196–97;
Calle de los Negros and, 231;
Chinese entertainment and, 216;
citizenship and, 36;
education and, 138;
European-American immigrants and, 60–61;
family life and, 139;
La Fiesta and, 5–6, 259;
immigrants as, 60–61;
Independence Day celebrations and, 134, 135;
Indian labor and, 296n45;
interculture and, 12, 91–92, 273n36;
Jenkins-Ruis incident and, 122, 125;
lynchings and, 102;
Mexican Independence and, 29;
mission secularization and, 36–37;
Plaza and, 30, 213;
racialization and, 41–42, 54;
skin tone and, 171;
theater and, 215;
United States and, 295n44;
emigration to Mexico, 104
Emmerson, Ralf, 151, 314n39
English language: education and, 138;
elections (of 1872) and, 200, 201;
Independence Day celebrations and, 134;
municipal government and public policy and, 128, 308n61;
newspapers and, 84, 128, 198;
party politics and, 128–30. See also bilingualism
entrepreneurialism. See commercialization
españoles, 25, 32, 33
Estrada, William, 17–18, 269n2
La Estrella: on Americans, 107;
on Brown, 101, 102;
on 1856 election, 118–19;
on S. Foster, 100, 303n17;
on Free Land Law, 86, 300n93;
on lynchings, 99–100;
on Mexican Californians, 104, 304nn2728, 305n29;
Ramirez and, 303n16
Ethington, Philip, 273n36, 278n55, 291n8
European-American hegemony: challenges to, 261;
La Fiesta and, 1–2, 7, 268;
infrastructure and, 220;
intermarriage and, 279n57, 294n36;
newspapers on, 103–4, 107, 109;
racialization and, 58–65, 140, 279n57;
(p.346) scholarship and, 275n46;
space and, 17, 255;
European Americans, 293n22;
arrest records, 123;
Bandini on, 105;
commercial districts, 141–46, 244–47, 248f, 250;
defined, 272n27;
Free Land Law and, 87;
interculture and, 12, 19–21, 55–58, 76;
Jenkins-Ruis incident and, 126;
juries of, 124;
land and, 80, 83, 85;
Los Angeles Star on, 104;
Mexican-American War and, 66;
party politics and, 21–22, 129;
Plaza and, 250–51;
racialization and, 11–12, 15, 17, 57, 58–59, 108, 252, 254–55, 276n50;
residences and residential districts, 141, 208–9, 240–43, 241f, 243f;
Rifleros Americanos and, 294n35;
space and, 173, 255;
ward system and, 179, 180, 198;
Evening Journal (newspaper), 104–5, 107, 108, 306n37
extralegal justice (vigilantism) and lynchings: Chinese and, 182–83, 191;
criminal proceedings and juries versus, 94, 303n9, 324n67;
interculture and, 87–103, 107–8, 120–28, 173, 191, 193–96, 302n108, 323nn55 and 57;
Mexican Californians and, 121–28, 172, 193–95;
Mexican Centralists and, 294n31;
patriarchy and, 63, 294n31;
Fages, Pedro, 35, 44
Fall, George, 195
families: Chinese, 327n22;
interculture and, 137–46;
intermarriage and, 19–20;
recruitment of, 18, 25, 26, 52. See also intermarriage
Fan Tan, 216, 328n34
Farnham, Thomas Jefferson, 59, 292n13
fees and taxes: city funds and, 158;
codes, 78–79;
commercial enterprises and, 115, 286n66;
droughts and, 170;
infrastructure and, 158, 159;
irrigation and, 80–81, 82, 84, 116–17, 314n48;
land and, 46, 86, 87, 104, 117, 171, 308n67, 314n48;
liquor control and, 286n66;
rancheros and, 7, 299n83;
sewers and, 224;
unimproved land and, 86;
water and, 72, 78, 79, 82, 84, 116–17, 152, 222, 314n48, 330nn6061
Fernandino Friars, 3, 24, 29
La Fiesta de Los Angeles, 1–8, 22, 261–68, 270nn8, 15, and 19, 329n45, 337nn2, 14, and 17
fiestas and festivals: californios and, 265;
Chinese, 218, 329nn47, 48, 49;
community organizations and, 217–18;
interculture and, 74, 76–77, 217–19, 250–51, 284n52, 285n60;
racialization and, 75, 265–66
Filipino Americans, 254
fire hydrants, 155
fire prevention, 319n24
First Street, 243f
Flores, María, 2–3, 66
flumes, 166, 317n71
Fogelson, Robert M., 17, 277n53
forgetting and remembering, 5–6, 7, 26, 104, 258–60, 262–65, 266
Foster, Stephen Clark (Estevan): on Antonio, 297n52;
background and role of, 9–10, 71–72, 297n52, 304n18;
Brown lynching and, 95–97, 99–101;
(p.347) Carriaga/Jenkins and, 122;
election (in 1856) of, 119–20;
La Estrella on, 100, 303n17;
interculture and, 74, 78, 100, 116, 119–20, 130, 132, 308n67;
irrigation and, 72, 80, 116, 131–32, 152;
newspapers on, 99, 118–19, 303n17, 308n64;
resignations of, 10, 96–97, 101, 102, 109, 129–30, 132, 304n22
Foster, Thomas, 110–12, 115, 116, 122, 124, 128
Foster, Timothy, 115–16, 307nn4647
founding period (Spanish period, pre-1821): communal ethos and, 50–51, 79;
described, 1–2, 23–32, 269n2;
forgetting of, 259;
Indians and, 18–19, 24–25, 34–36, 279n1, 284n49;
interculture and, 52, 54;
land and, 45–47;
maps, 28f;
municipal government and, 42–45;
racialization and, 18–19, 26, 32–42, 51–54;
recruitment of families and, 18, 25, 26, 52;
water and, 47–48, 175;
women and, 45–47, 49–50, 329n45. See also Spain and colonialism
Free Land Law (1852), 85–87, 92, 95, 110, 111, 171, 300n93
Frémont, John C., 3, 21, 128, 130, 295n38, 310n96
Frohling family, 169
frontier, 8, 16–17, 58, 271n24, 277n52, 282n27, 289n89
funerals, 120–21, 329n47
Gabrielino-Tongva: borderlands and, 8;
californios and, 38, 54, 206, 305n35;
casta system and, 282n24;
Catholicism and, 282n27, 283n41;
censuses and, 32;
citizenship and, 283nn4041;
colonialism and, 24, 52;
defined, 272n27, 280n3;
elections (of 1872) and, 199;
elites and, 91–92;
enfranchisement and, 73–74;
extralegal justice and, 193;
La Fiesta and, 4, 5–6, 262–63, 329n45;
Thomas Foster and, 112;
founding period and, 33;
as gente sin razón, 33–34, 35–36;
Guerrero and, 297n51;
inequality and, 54;
infrastructure and, 251;
interculture and, 12, 32, 79, 92, 95;
labor and, 34–40, 45, 51, 110, 112, 265, 283n39, 284nn4950, 295n45, 306n43;
land and, 50, 70, 285n53, 299n83;
laws and ordinances and, 39, 45, 51, 69–70, 87–88, 189, 295n45, 300nn9798;
liquor control and, 88, 110, 296n45, 307n58;
Los Angeles Star and, 103;
marginalization of, 19, 53;
Mexican period and, 36–42;
Mexicans and, 284n41;
mission secularization and, 36–37, 38, 283n41, 284n43;
Monroy on, 276n50;
municipal government, 39, 45, 51, 52–53, 69–71, 87–88, 108, 300n97;
population figures, 23–24, 37, 284nn4344;
as prisoners, 112, 306n43;
public policy and, 39, 45, 50, 51, 52–53, 87–88, 108, 300n97;
racialization and, 171, 189, 190, 322n49;
rancheros and, 305n35;
recruitment of families and, 25;
role of, 276n50;
social standing and, 33, 34;
Sonoratown and, 140;
Spaniards and, 282n27;
Spanish male behavior and, 24, 26, 280n4;
Star on, 103;
vagrancy and, 39, 92, 108, 110;
vecinos versus, 297n48;
violence against, 88, 190, 302n108, 322n51;
Gallardo, Rafael, 70, 296n45, 297n48
gambling, 231;
californios and, 103, 292n16;
Chinese and, 184, 187, 216, 234, 236f, 328n34;
European Americans and, 328n32;
fines and, 286n65;
laws and, 43, 79, 88;
Plaza and, 47;
Sonoratown and, 140. See also rancherías
Garfias, Manuel, 80, 89
(p.348) Garner, William R., 292n16
gas plant, 211f
gender. See women and gender
gente de/sin razón: Bandini and, 306n37;
definition and origin of, 9, 11, 33–34;
European Americans and, 12, 91;
Gabrielinos and, 35–36;
laws and, 296n45;
Mexican-American War and, 68–69;
party politics and, 130;
secularization and, 37–38;
skin tone and, 105;
Sonoratown and, 140;
Spanish-Indian marriages and, 25
Getman, William, 120, 121, 127
ghetto studies, 276n49
Gillespie, Archibald, 2, 66, 77
Glassell, Andrew, 180, 198
gold rush (1848), 3–4, 74, 136, 139, 206, 211, 292n13
González, Michael, 271n23, 285n55
Graham, Isaac, 72, 294n35
Granger, Lewis, 77, 89
Greaser Act (Vagrancy Act of 1855), 108–9
greasers, 108, 130, 303n8
Griffin, John S., 154, 160, 176, 177–78
gringos, 272n27
Griswold del Castillo, Richard, 16, 140, 309n86
growth and industrialization, 17, 170, 199, 200, 332n77. See also commercialization; mills; population and statistics
de la Guerra, Pablo, 72, 73
Guerrero, Vicente, 69, 70, 296nn4546, 297n51
Guerrero Adobe, 31f
Harper's Weekly, 259–60
Hartnell, William, 72, 293n24
Hartog, Hendrik, 332n77
Hastings, Lansford, 58–59
Hawaii, 185
Hayes, Benjamin, 96, 120, 123, 125, 309n73
Hazzard, Henry T., 237–38, 323n61, 335n103
Hellman, Haas, and Company, 233, 234, 313n27, 332n82
Hellman brothers, 169
Hernandez, Juan, 126, 309n73
hijos del país, 26. See also californios
hindsight, 9, 109, 201–2
Hing, Yo (Joseph Hinton), 181–82, 183, 184, 187, 188, 192, 195
historic preservation and, 257–59
historiography, 16–18
history, 3–10, 16, 257–68, 337n2
Ho, Yut, 188
hombres buenos (“good men”), 49, 301n103
Hong Chow Company, 188, 217
horse speed laws, 115
hospitals, 217
Huber tract, 226, 228f, 230f
Hunter, J. D., 96, 99
hydraulic ram, 154
ideologies, 43–44, 46, 162–63, 249, 326n10, 336n111
Independence Day celebrations: Mexican, 218, 329nn4445;
U.S., 76–77, 133–35, 136, 138, 251, 311nn1, 2, 3, 336n116
(p.349) Indians. See Gabrielino-Tongva; Yuma Indians
indios, 9. See also Gabrielino-Tongva
industrialization and growth, 17, 170, 199, 200, 332n77. See also commercialization; mills; population and statistics
infrastructure: capitalist state and, 332nn7677;
city debt and, 158–60;
civic ideals and, 82, 146, 149, 160–63, 165, 167, 226, 255–56;
in 1870s–80s, 219–30;
election (of 1872) and, 202–3;
Harper's Weekly on, 260;
individual choices and, 209, 255;
interculture and, 137, 157–58, 255;
lived experience and, 239–49;
Mexican Californians and, 165, 168;
municipal government and, 158–65;
Plaza and, 239, 249–50, 251, 256;
racialization and, 15, 22, 165, 168, 224–53, 255, 256–59, 332n76;
interculture: Aguilar election and, 198;
anti-Chinese violence and, 191, 192–93, 194–95;
civic ideals and, 110, 119–20, 130–32, 146, 152, 173;
decline of, 193–94;
defined, 279n57;
pre-1855 European American immigrants and, 58–65;
elites and, 12, 91–92, 273n36;
forgetting of, 265, 266;
founding period, 52, 54;
Free Land Law and, 85;
interregnum period, 91–93;
Mexican-American War and, 66;
Mexican period and, 53–54, 74–87;
space and, 145–46, 210, 213, 219, 329n52;
spatial mestizaje, 8, 14, 272n26;
suffrage and, 74
intermarriage, 312n8;
European American hegemony and, 279n57, 294n36;
founding period, 24–25;
interculture and, 19–20, 56, 65, 137–39, 146, 294n36;
Mexican-American War and, 66;
Mexican period and, 56, 291n6;
soldiers/Indians, 24–25, 106;
space and, 136;
whiteness and, 73. See also mixed-heritage people (mestizos)
interregnum period (1846–48): extralegal justice and, 87–91;
interculture and, 19–20, 91–93;
intermarriage and, 65;
population, 56–57;
public office and, 62–65;
racialization and, 57–61, 309n81;
rebellions, 292n22. See also Mexican-American War
irrigation: blue-ribbon commission and, 160, 161;
commodification of water and, 152–57, 162, 168, 221–22;
communal vs. private ethos, 48, 64, 72, 82–83, 113–14, 154, 173–78;
fees and taxes and, 116–17, 152, 314n48;
interculture and, 82–83, 116–17, 131–32;
public policy and, 79–82;
reservoir for, 160, 168, 175;
size of city and, 84. See also agriculture; water; zanjas
Islam, 19, 43, 301n103
jacales, 22
Jackson, Helen Hunt, 297n55
Japanese Californians, 252, 254
Jenkins, William (constable), 120–21, 122, 124–28, 129–30
Jenkins, William (zanjero), 221
Jenkins-Ruis incident, 120–28, 129–30, 131, 135, 140, 309n81, 310n93
Jew, Victor, 320n36, 321n47, 323n56, 324n64
Jewish families and organizations, 7, 138, 217
Jim Crow laws, 97
judges. See alcaldes; mayors
judges of the plains, 46, 286n65, 288n75
juez de aguas, 80. See also zanjeros
La Junta Patriótica de Juárez, 217, 218
(p.350) juries. See criminal proceedings and juries
Kealhofer, Lisa, 280n3, 284n49
Keller, Matthew (Mateo), 89, 143, 156–57
King, Andrew, 180, 184, 310n88
King Philip's War, 324n66
Kneipe, 144
Kurhts, Jacob, 234, 238
labor, 252;
Chinese and, 237, 321n47, 334n95;
founding period, 26, 27, 32–36;
Gabrielinos and, 34–40, 45, 51, 110, 112, 265, 283n39, 284nn4950, 295n45, 306n43;
instead of cash, 152;
irrigation and, 72, 152;
marriages and, 19;
McWilliams on, 16;
Pico House and, 213;
prisoner, 306n43;
public policy and, 79;
racialization and, 12, 260;
recreation and, 215–16;
vagrancy and, 51, 88, 110;
women and, 283n39
Lachenais, Michel, 324n67
Los Lanceros de Los Angeles, 135, 328n40
land, 293n22;
Chinese and, 331n70;
communal vs. private ethos and, 44, 45–47, 64, 79, 84, 111, 137;
deeds, 13, 67–68, 83, 154, 288nn73 and 76, 293n22, 306n42;
European Americans and, 61, 139;
founding period and, 44, 287n69;
Indians and, 50, 70, 285n53, 299n83;
interculture and, 83–84, 255;
marriages and, 19;
mayor's court and, 306n42;
Mexican-American War and, 67–68, 83;
Mexican Californians and, 87, 103–4, 299n83, 331n70;
Mexican immigrants and, 139;
Mexican vs. U.S. law and, 83;
mission secularization and, 36–37;
mixed-heritage people and, 33;
municipal government and, 13, 83–84, 85, 86, 299n86;
newspaper opinions and, 86, 107, 109;
private projects and, 147, 154;
public policy and, 79, 85;
racialization and, 13–14, 33, 105–7;
rancheros and, 299n83;
vecinos and, 40, 46, 51, 106, 171;
water and, 117, 152, 154, 174;
Land Act (U.S., 1851), 83–87, 106, 171, 299n86, 300n87
land commissions, 47, 84, 108, 300nn8687
landscape, 277n52
Langum, David, 62, 289n89
Laughlin, Richard, 64, 294n33
laws and ordinances (municipal): anti-Chinese massacre and, 324n64;
Chinese maneuvering and, 187, 191–92, 323n54;
communal ethos and, 49–50;
elections and, 354n79;
enforcement of, 81–82, 88, 112;
experience versus, 112, 116, 118–20;
Thomas Foster on, 111–12;
Indians and, 39, 45, 51, 69–70, 87–88, 189, 295n45, 300nn9798;
organizing and binding of, 111–12;
racialization and, 99, 127, 128, 296n45, 310n86;
segregation and, 255;
sewers and, 331n69;
Spanish influences, 25–26, 290n91;
and Spanish language, 118;
vigilantism versus, 127;
Lazard, Solomon, 176, 177–78, 301n101, 313n27
Leandri, Juan Bautista, 60, 62, 290n94
Leeching Hung & Co., 212f
Lefebvre, Henri, 10, 12, 162, 208, 249, 326n10, 336n111
(p.351) Lepore, Jill, 284n46, 324n66
“Letters from California” (Garner), 292n16
lights, city, 220
Lindley, Walter, 225
liquor control: fees and, 286n66;
Thomas Foster on, 110, 111, 112, 306n45;
Indians and, 88, 110, 296n45, 307n58;
norteamericano council and, 118;
temperance groups, 217
literacy, 288n76
Little Tokyo, 252
loans, 159–60, 166. See also city finances
López, Marissa K., 271n24, 275n46, 277n52
Los Angeles, historiography of, 16–18
Los Angeles Herald, 213, 265, 266–67
Los Angeles Merchants Association, 3, 261–62, 264–65, 266
Los Angeles River (Río Porciuncula), 1–2, 14, 22, 23, 27, 144, 153–58, 160, 168, 169–70, 173–78, 259, 289n83
“Los Angeles School” of urban studies, 17, 277n54
Los Angeles Star: advertising of businesses in, 139, 145;
on Aguilar, 202;
arrest statistics and, 123, 309n82;
on Brown, 100–102, 303n14;
on bullfight, 198;
on californios, 107, 306n38;
on Carriaga, 310n87;
on Chinese, 184, 191;
city finances and, 159;
elections (of 1872) and, 199, 200, 202–3, 325nn77 and 79;
English language and, 84, 128;
on S. Foster, 304n22;
on Free Land Law, 86;
on Independence Day celebrations, 134, 135;
on Indians, 140;
Jenkins-Ruis incident and, 120, 121, 122–23, 125, 126, 127–28;
on Land Law, 106;
on Ludwig and McCoy, 88;
on Mexican Californians, 103–4, 107, 109, 122–24;
Newmark and Kremmer and, 143;
on Nieto arrest, 127;
party politics and, 128–30;
racialization and, 102;
racial slurs, 305n36;
on Savaleta and Rivas incident, 302n106;
on Sonoratown, 237;
on violence, 139, 312n12;
on water, 152
Los Angeles Street: Calle de los Negros and, 233–38, 257, 314n41, 332n82, 334nn9293, 336n105;
commercialization and, 143, 336n105;
culvert and, 151;
map, 235f;
regrading of, 151, 159
Los Angeles Times: boosterism and, 262;
Chinese and, 218, 237, 238, 251, 329nn47, 48, 49, 335nn99, 100, 101, 336n105;
history and, 257–58, 337n2;
on Indians, 262;
Kurhts and, 234;
on Plaza, 251
Los Angeles Water Company, 176, 221
Lou, Raymond, 328n34
Low, Setha M., 27, 281n14
Ludwig and McCoy, 88–89
Lugo, Antonio Mariá, 37, 46, 61, 288n75
Lugo, José del Carmen and adobe, 31f, 67
Lugo, María de Jesús, 61, 66
Lugo, Vicente and adobe, 31f, 66, 211, 212f
Lugo, Antonio Mariá, 37, 46, 61, 288n75
Lugo, José del Carmen and adobe, 31f, 67
Lugo, María de Jesús, 61, 66
Lugo, Vicente and adobe, 31f, 66, 211, 212f
Lugo family, 274n41
Maccabees, 337n14
McCoy and Ludwig, 88–89
McCullough, Hartnell and Company, 293n24
McFarland and Downey, 143
McLaughlin, Hiram and foundry, 131, 153–56, 166–67, 316n64
McWilliams, Carey, 16, 275n47
Macy, Obed, 110, 112, 115–16
Magnolia Saloon, 245f
Main Street, 13, 151, 204, 209, 213, 214f, 242f, 248f. See also Temple Block
mala vida (MV), 45, 46
(p.352) male behavior and patriarchy: californios and, 38;
civic ideals and, 26;
European Americans and, 57;
gente de razón and, 34;
Indian women and, 18, 24–25, 26, 52, 103, 106;
interculture and, 64;
municipal government and, 45, 49–50, 52;
space and, 32. See also soldiers, Spanish
Manhattan (N.Y.), 332n77
Marchessault, Damien, 160
Market House, 149–50, 324n37
Market Street, 150f
marriage. See intermarriage
Masonic orders and Hall, 133, 139, 143, 216, 217, 250, 329n47
mayors: interculture and, 119;
as judges, 110, 112, 117, 298n66, 306n42;
Mexican Californian (1864–72), 172, 199, 201, 202;
role and history of, 78, 85, 110;
Mechanics' Institute, 133
Mellus, Francis: advertising by, 313n27;
Commercial Street extension and, 314n39;
jury duty of, 301n101;
land dispute of, 315n56;
platform scale of, 149, 313n36;
Savaleta and Rivas and, 89;
as superintendent of schools, 308n67;
vigilantism and, 309n79;
water and, 113–15, 117, 119
Mellus's Row, 169
Merced Theatre, 214–15, 247, 250, 327n28, 328n29, 336n113
mestizos. See mixed-heritage people
Mexican Americans. See Mexican Californians
Mexican-American War (1846–48), 15, 19–20, 56–58, 65–74, 83, 92–93, 309n81
Mexican Californians (Mexican Americans): arrest records, 123;
blue-ribbon commission and, 160, 162;
Chinese and, 189, 190, 191, 192–94, 196–97, 321n42, 323n58;
defined, 272n27;
economic factors and, 170–72;
election to office of, 119, 165, 172, 202, 317n10;
emigration plan of, 104–5, 107, 109;
as entrepreneurs, 167–68;
extralegal violence and, 89–91, 95–102, 121–28, 172, 193–95;
forgetting of, 5–6, 104, 258–60, 262, 263, 264;
S. Foster and, 10, 119–20, 131–32;
Independence Day celebrations and, 134–35;
juries and, 310n88;
land and, 87, 103–4, 299n83, 331n70;
Mexican-American War and, 19–20;
newspapers on, 304nn2728, 305nn32, 33, 34, 306n39;
party politics and, 21–22, 129–30, 168, 172–73;
Plaza and, 207, 213–15, 216, 217–18;
population statistics, 298n61, 318n14;
racialization and, 9, 11, 12, 105–7, 108–9;
residences and residential districts, 145–46, 202–3, 223f, 242f, 244–49, 244f, 246f;
social life and recreation and, 118, 134;
twentieth century and, 254–55;
ward politics and, 202–3;
ward system and, 179, 180–81, 197–98;
water and, 153, 163–65;
Mexican Centralists, 2, 54, 288n71, 290n91, 292n22, 294n31
Mexican Independence, 29, 36, 44, 275n45, 281n18
Mexicanized Yankees, 294n36
Mexican period (1822–46): civic ideals and, 42–52, 57;
criminal proceedings and, 48–50;
European Americans and, 60–65;
Indians and, 26, 38–40, (p.353) 45, 87–88;
influences of, 278n55;
interculture and, 32, 52–54, 74–87;
intermarriage and, 19–20, 24–25, 56;
land and water and, 79, 85–87, 113;
municipal government and, 25–26, 42–52;
Plaza and, 29–31f;
population, 26;
Mexicans, 272n27, 275n47, 310n86. See also racialization
Mexico: alcaldes and, 288n71;
European Americans and, 58;
European and American immigrants and, 19;
La Fiesta and, 5–6;
frontier and, 18;
identities and, 54, 271n23;
independence from, 53;
Indians and, 110;
invasions by, 2;
law and, 49, 290n91;
Los Angeles and, 276n50;
municipal lands and, 86;
Tejanos and, 298n65;
Meyberg, Max, 261–62, 264, 267
Meyer & Breslauer, 169
Micheltorena, Manuel, 2, 77, 292n22
middle classes, 196–97, 215, 216
military and territorial periods, 78
militia groups, 2, 3, 133, 134, 135, 138, 217, 294n35, 328n40
mills, 113–15, 154, 157
mining, 3–4, 263, 318n17
minstrel shows, 215, 328n31, 336n113
missions: commerce and, 293n24;
founding period and, 24;
secularization of, 36–39, 54, 283n41, 284nn43 and 50, 292n18
Mission San Diego, 24
Mission San Gabriel, 3, 23, 24, 34
mixed-heritage people (mestizos): californios and, 38;
children of, 33, 40, 103, 106, 282n24;
defined, 32, 41;
European Americans as not, 54;
as founders, 18, 22, 25;
Gabrielinos and, 35;
Spanish law and, 32–33. See also hybridity; mestizaje; racialization
mobility, 136
Monroy, Douglas, 17, 273n36, 276n50, 285n55
Monterey, 24
Moors, 275n46
Morris Brothers and Prager, 317n71
Mott tract, 226, 228f, 231f
mulatos, 25, 33, 282n24
municipal government and public policy: bilingualism and, 109, 308n67;
borderlands and, 49;
buildings, 27, 149–50;
capitalism and, 114;
Chinese and, 183, 230–39;
commerce and, 44, 47, 79;
communal ethos and, 27, 45–46, 48, 49, 50, 53, 64, 137, 222, 289n79, 307n58;
English/Spanish languages and, 118, 128, 135, 308n61;
European vs. Mexican Americans and, 109, 165;
La Fiesta and, 1, 3;
founding period (Spanish period) and, 42–45, 48;
history of Los Angeles and, 18;
Indians and, 39, 45, 51, 52–53, 108, 300n97;
interculture and, 19, 21, 33, 42, 60–61, 66, 71, 92–93, 109–18, 172–73, 307n58;
intermarriage and, 65;
Mexican-American War and, 67–71, 78, 79;
Mexican law and, 288n71;
Mexican period and, 2, 25–26, 42–52, 56–57;
party politics and, 21;
patriarchy and, 49–50, 52;
power and, 113, 136, 148–49, 224, 227, 234–39, 331n68;
private property and, 46, 64, 151–52, 153, 307n58;
public spaces and, 47, 115;
racialization and, 33, 42, 44–45, 51–52, 162–65, 227–40, 247–49;
rancherías and, 35, 69–71, 87–88, 295n45;
religion and, 51;
role and history of, 42–44, 286n63;
space and, (p.354) 21, 27, 47, 162–63, 239–49;
Spanish influences, 25–26, 33, 43, 49;
mutual benefit societies, 7, 63, 139, 216, 217, 218, 337n14. See also huiguan
national identities, 15–16, 271nn23 and 25
Negrete, Luis de Castillo, 290n91
de Neve, Felipe: alcaldes and, 286n67;
Gabrielino-Tongva and, 24, 34;
land and, 44, 387n69;
location of pueblo and, 23;
Plaza and, 27, 29;
Zanja Madre and, 47, 174
New England, 284n46, 289n89
New High Street, 245f
Newmark, Harris: anti-Chinese riot and, 184;
background, 6–7;
barn architecture and, 141;
on Brown incident, 95–96, 102;
business of, 143, 144–45;
on La Fiesta, 141;
on S. Foster resignation, 304n22;
on Sonoratown, 140;
on Spanish handbills, 328n29;
on vigilantism, 90;
water policy and, 313n31
Newmark, Marco, 143, 184
Newmark and Cohen, 313n22
Newmark and Kremmer, 143
New Mexicans, 55
newspapers: English language and, 84, 128;
interculture and, 87, 103–7;
and lynchings, 97–100;
Spanish language and, 84, 329n51
New Western historians, 16–17
Nichols, John G.: election to office of, 78, 110;
foundry and, 154;
irrigation and, 152–53, 314n48;
land acquisition and, 85;
as mayor, 81–82, 112, 130;
resignation of, 115;
Water Committee and, 147;
zanjas and, 166
Nin Yung, 188, 217
Nirenburg, David, 322n52
norteamericanos, 8, 68, 109, 118, 272n27. See also European Americans
North Broadway, 242f, 246f
Norton, Myron, 130, 134, 147
O'Campo Adobe/Plazuela, 31f, 281n23
Odd Fellows, 133, 217
Ogier, Isaac K., 76, 77
Olive Street, 243f
Olvera, Agustín and adobe, 31f, 134, 138, 172, 308n67, 317n11
ordinances. See laws and ordinances
organizations, community, 187–88, 216–18, 250, 252, 254
Osborne, William M., 200
Osburn, William E., 89
Osio, Antonio María, 40–41, 285n59, 290n91, 295n44
padrón (census), 32
El Palacio (Stearns Adobe), 31f, 142f, 144, 204, 209
party politics: interculture and, 74, 131;
public policy and, 21;
racialization and, 128–30, 134, 165, 172–73;
Pekin Curio Store, 212f
peon (game), 88, 301n98
Pershing Square, 251, 265, 266f
Pico, Andrés, 41, 74, 122, 127, 138, 301n101
Pico, Antonio, 72
Pico, Nachita Alvarado de, 42f
(p.355) Pico, Pío, 30, 42f, 58, 64;
background and career of, 41, 205–7, 216, 250, 274n41, 277n52, 285n61, 325n8, 327n27;
as governor, 13, 206, 269n4;
and Pico House, 13–14, 205, 206–7, 213, 214, 250;
in rebellion (of 1845), 292n22
Pico family, 42f, 125, 126, 274n41
Pico House, 31f, 214f;
architecture, 204–5f, 206–7;
background, 13–14, 213;
capitalism and, 207, 213, 325n8;
elite social life and, 213;
interculture and, 30, 127, 215, 216, 247, 250;
Jenkins-Ruis affair and, 125, 126, 127
Pío Pico (Salomon), 274n41, 285n61
pipes, water, 163, 221, 222, 256, 289n83, 317n70
Pitt, Leonard, 16, 93, 294n36, 309n81
place, 10, 12, 13, 14–18, 53, 274nn4344
platform scale, 149, 313n36
Plaza (Los Angeles), 31f, 211f, 222, 235f;
commercial districts, 202–19;
commercialization and, 30, 141–46, 206, 209, 210, 216, 247, 249, 274n41;
descriptions and uses of, 27, 29, 30, 47, 204–5, 218f, 281n14;
La Fiesta and, 265;
floods and, 274n40;
infrastructure and, 239, 249–50, 251, 256;
interculture and, 138, 145–46, 207–8, 209, 213, 326n13;
Mexican Californians and, 207, 213–15, 216, 217–18;
private homes and, 274n41;
racialization and, 13, 15, 22;
relocation of, 29–30, 274n40;
social life and, 47, 213–15, 217–19, 250–51;
space and, 22, 141–46, 147;
vecinos and, 40;
ward system and, 179;
water and, 159, 163, 164f, 168
Plaza Church (La Iglesia de Nuestra Señora La Reina de Los Angeles), 27, 31f, 204, 211f
la plazuela, 30–31f, 281n23
police force, 79, 100, 298n68
politics. See elections; party politics
Pollorena, Maria Candelaria, 120
poor people, 75. See also economic factors
population and statistics (censuses): Chinese, 183–84, 211–12, 240, 320n40, 326nn1819, 327n22, 331n70;
founding period, 26;
in 1830s–50s, 26, 56–57, 88, 123, 139, 298n61, 309n86;
late 1850s–early 1860s, 136, 156, 159;
in 1870–1900, 5, 202, 222, 224, 240, 254, 318n14, 326n12;
in 1890–1930, 252, 254;
foreign-born/total (1844–50), 56;
Gabrielino-Tongva, 37, 284nn4344;
Mexican born (1850–60), 309n86;
Mexican Californians, 298n61, 318n14, 326n12;
racialization and, 32;
rancherías, 37, 284n44;
Sonoratown, 240;
sources, 281n13;
street information and, 326n21;
transportation and, 220;
women, 45, 320n40
postmodernism, 277n54
Potter, N. A., 119, 147, 152
power, social and economic: racialization and, 8, 10, 11, 12, 16, 53;
preservation, 256–57
prior appropriation, right of, 174, 175, 318n17, 319n20
prison escapes, 102
private property: municipal government and public policy and, 46, 64, 151–52, 153, 307n58, 314n42;
Protestant European Americans and, 57;
sewers and, 224;
size of city and, 84;
water and, 146–49, 152–58, 314n42, 315n49. See also commodification; land
privatization. See commodification
propios, 44, 287n69
prostitution and brothels, 184, 187, 236f, 320n40, 335n101
(p.356) Protestants, 57, 138
public health campaign, 237–39, 330n62, 336nn1078
public market, 149–50f
pubs, German, 144
pueblos, 25, 284n49
Pullen, Charles, 259–60
racialization: borderlands and, 8–14;
casta system, 32–33, 35–36, 282nn24 and 27;
citizenship and, 11, 20, 44–45, 127, 135;
elections (of 1872) and, 199–202;
La Fiesta and, 6, 261–66;
interculture and, 57–58, 91–92, 291n8, 327n28;
modern scholarship and, 16–17, 276n50;
national identity and, 15;
nomenclature and, 272n27;
place and, 12, 13, 15–16, 18, 53, 274n43;
power and, 8, 10, 11, 12, 16, 53;
space and, 14–18, 22, 32, 53, 201–3, 249, 251–53, 254–56, 274nn4344, 330n58;
streets and, 226–30;
transnational factors, 274n45;
worldviews and, 273n34
railroads, 199, 202, 220, 224, 233, 261
Ramirez, Francisco, 100, 104, 107, 118–19, 128–29, 130, 134, 303n16, 305n28, 310n93
rancherías: Code of Conduct (1787) and, 35;
destruction of, 69–71, 95, 100, 110, 124, 193, 296nn4546, 297n48;
loss of, 299n83;
municipal government and, 35, 69–71, 87–88, 295n45;
population figures, 37, 284n44
ranchos and rancheros. See californios
Rancho Santa Ana del Chino, 61, 66
real estate booms and busts, 4, 202, 206, 208–53, 224, 261
rebellions: Centralists and, 290n91, 292n22;
La Fiesta and, 1, 3;
Gillespie and, 2–3, 66–67;
Indian women and (1775), 24;
interculture and, 66–67, 76, 295n38;
Rifleros Americanos and, 294n35;
Stearns accused of, 62
Reid, Felipe, 73
Reid, Hugo, 72, 73, 297n55
Rendon, Juanita de Díos, 68, 295n44
Republican Party, 21, 128, 129
Republic Street, 245f
Requeña, Manuel: background, 78;
Barton and Osburn and, 89;
Commercial Street extension and, 314n39;
elections to office, 119, 172;
party politics and, 129;
resignation of, 156;
streets and, 81–82, 151, 315n56;
Villa and, 63;
water and, 80, 116, 152, 316n64
Requeña Street, 143
reservoir for irrigation, 160, 168, 175
residences and residential districts, 31f;
Chinese, 190, 211–12, 230–39, 244, 246f, 247f, 249, 326nn20, 21, 22;
European American, 141, 208–9, 240–43, 241f, 243f;
expansion of, 136–41, 145, 146;
infrastructure and, 165, 167–68, 208–9, 239, 253;
Mexican Californian, 145–46, 202–3, 223f, 242f, 244–49, 244f, 246f;
Plaza and, 27, 29;
racialization and, 21, 173;
social interactions and, 208–53;
streets and, 150–51, 226–27;
ward system and, 179–80
Rifleros Americanos, 294n35
right of prior appropriation, 174, 175, 318n17, 319n20
riparian rights and owners, 174, 318nn17 and 20, 319n20
Rivas, Jesus, 89, 90, 95, 100, 126, 193, 302n106
Rivera y Moncada, Fernando, 25, 279n1
(p.357) Rojo, Manuel Clemente, 86, 89, 100
Ross, J. W., 110, 115, 307n46
Rowan, Thomas, 1, 3
Rowland, John, 55, 64, 66, 145
Rowland-Workman party, 60, 78, 301n101
Ruis, Antonio, murder of, 120–28, 129–30, 131, 135, 140, 309n81, 310n93
Sainsevain, Jean Louis, 166, 175–76, 309n79, 314n41
Sanchez, Esteban, 67, 182
San Diego, 24
San José, 109
San Pascual, 77
San Pedro, 76–77
Santa Ana del Chino, 37
Savaleta, Teodoro, 88–90, 95, 100, 126, 193, 302n106
Schumacher, John, 116, 177
Scott, Jonathan R., 89, 113–15, 117, 119
secularization of missions, 36–39, 54
See Yup Company, 187–88, 323n54
segregation, 51, 88, 254–55
Seguro Adobe and Gaming House, 31f, 281n23
Sepúlveda, Dolores, 301n101
Sepúlveda, Encarnación, 48, 289n85
Sepúlveda, Joaquín, 139, 209
Sepúlveda, José Andrés, 49, 50, 209, 327n27
Sepúlveda, José Loreto, 78, 80
Sepúlveda, Juan Andrés, 31f, 77–78, 96, 99, 138
Sepúlveda, Ygnacio, 324n67
Sepúlveda Adobe, 209
Serra, Junípero, 24, 34
sewers: Chinese and, 221–25, 238–40, 246f, 249;
funding and, 224, 331nn72 and 74;
ordinances, 331n69;
Plaza and, 249;
racialization and, 15, 22, 251, 256;
Star on, 202;
Toberman on, 203. See also infrastructure
sexuality, 38, 45
Sisters of Charity, 138
Sizgorich, Tom, 271n25
skin tone: californios and, 265;
elections (of 1872) and, 199;
elite and, 171;
gente de/sin razón and, 105;
New Western historians on, 15–16;
racialization and, 10–12, 215, 276n50;
U.S. immigrant perceptions and, 17, 57, 59, 108;
ward system and, 181. See also blacks; brownness; whites and whiteness
slaughter of animals, 115, 118, 306n42
Smith, Rogers, 287n68
social life and recreation: Calle de los Negros and, 139;
intercultural, 213–19;
interculture and, 133–37, 215–17, 218, 250;
party politics and, 22;
Pico House and, 213;
Plaza and, 47, 213–15, 250–51;
residential and commercial buildings and, 145;
Sonoratown and, 140;
space and, 136
social status and mobility, 33, 34, 40, 213, 285n53, 306n37. See also racialization
La Sociedad Hispano-Americana de Beneficia Mutua, 217
soldiers, Spanish: Indian women and, 18, 24–25, 52, 103, 106;
land loss and, 106;
mission secularization and, 37;
mixed heritage and, 33;
racialization and, 41–42;
vecinos and, 297n48
soldiers, U.S., 69, 70, 71, 72, 295n44
Sonoratown, 242f, 244f246f;
community organizations and, 250;
growth of, 139–41, 209;
Harper's Weekly on, 259;
infrastructure and, 250;
land ownership and, 331n70;
public health campaign and, 239;
racialization and, 139–41;
sewers and, 223–25, 239–40, 249;
streets and, 226–39, 249;
ward system and, 179
South Americans, 8, 272n27
Southern Californian (newspaper), 97–99, 303n11
(p.358) Southern Rifles, 133, 134, 135, 138
South Side Irrigation Company, 222
space: Cartesian, 22, 32, 47, 52–53, 146, 208, 238, 275n46, 332n77;
determinants of, 208, 275n45, 325n9;
ideologies and, 249, 326n10, 336n111;
racialization and, 14–18, 22, 32, 53, 201–3, 249, 251–53, 254–56, 274nn4344, 330n58;
spatial mestizaje, 8, 14, 272n26
Spain and colonialism: administrative structure and, 49, 255, 275n46, 288n71, 290n91;
Cartesian plan and, 32, 52–53, 275n46;
La Fiesta and, 262;
Indians and, 24, 32, 52–53, 276n50, 280n4, 322n49;
municipal government influences, 25–26, 33, 43, 49;
racialization and, 32–33, 34, 36, 39, 54, 255, 258, 259, 272n27, 279n57, 282n27;
recruitment of families and, 18, 25;
social and civil purposes and, 25, 26, 280n11;
water policy and, 48, 113, 114, 174;
women and, 46. See also founding period
Spaniards, pure blooded, 32, 282n25
Spanish language: education and, 138;
English versus, 5;
Independence Day celebrations and, 134;
municipal government and, 118, 128, 308n61;
newspapers and, 10, 128, 329n51;
party politics and, 128–30;
Pico House and, 207. See also bilingualism
Spanish Mexicans, 272n27
Spring Street, 143, 144f, 184, 209, 247, 248f
Starr, Kevin, 320n36, 321n47
statistics, 86–87
Stearns, Abel: background, 56, 61–62, 160;
commerce and, 62, 141–42;
crimes accused of, 62, 77;
Day fight and, 62, 293n27;
elections to office, 72, 75, 78;
as judge, 89–90;
Angeles Street and, 314n41;
as mayor, 79;
water and, 80, 160. See also Arcadia Block
Stearns Adobe (El Palacio), 31f, 142f, 144, 204, 209
Stearns's Hall, 217
Stevenson, Jonathan D., 67, 69–70, 297n48
Stewart, J. H., 110, 115, 307n46
Stockton, Robert F., 2, 66, 77, 259
street railways, 220, 247, 248f
streets, 241f247f;
censuses and, 326n21;
Chinese and Mexican Californians and, 226–39, 251, 256;
cleaning, 81–82;
S. Foster on, 119;
Manhattan and, 332n77;
municipal government and public policy and, 47, 78, 81–82, 113, 149–51, 159, 202–3, 226–39;
plans, 30f, 31f, 47;
Plaza and, 249;
prisoner labor and, 112;
private property and, 151;
racialization and, 226–30;
space and, 221;
state legislature and, 331n68, 332nn80 and 82;
watering of, 307n51
suburbs, 17
suffrage, 73–74, 297n56
Sunday Mass, 51
superintendent of water. See zanjeros
Supreme Court of California, 94, 96, 98, 318n17 and 20
Sutter's Mill, 4
taxes. See fees and taxes
Tejanos, 75, 298n65
telegraph company, 144
Temple, Francisca, 143
Temple, Jonathan (Juan): background, 56, 60, 63, 143, 160;
blue-ribbon commission and, 160;
Commercial Street extension and, 314n39;
streets and, 151;
Villa lynching and, 63, 294n31. See also Market House; Temple Block
(p.359) Temple Block, 143–44f, 150f
Texas, 75, 271n25, 276n50, 280n4, 298n65, 302n108
theaters: bilingualism and, 215, 328n29;
Chinese, 216, 219, 236f;
interculture and, 139, 215;
Star on, 312n12
Thompson, Robert, 181, 182, 183, 194
Thompson, Rosario, 194
Toberman, James R., 22, 200, 201, 203, 207, 220
Tong, Chee Long “Gene,” 183, 184, 195
Tongs, 187, 328n42
Tongva. See Gabrielino-Tongva
tourism, 258, 259
transportation, 220. See also railroads
travel writers, U.S., 58–60
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 67, 73, 83, 85
Tsooi, Chung Ting, 218, 329n48
Turner, Joel, 179
Turnverein Germania, 7, 216, 217, 337n14
Uhlbrook, Henry, 116, 307n58
United States: Chinese and, 236, 237, 334n95, 335n103;
civic ideals, 57;
Eastern Seaboard, 275n46;
identities and, 9;
land and water policies, 68, 79, 300n86;
Los Angeles claimed by, 2;
the South, 57;
Southwest, 18, 254, 272n26, 275n46, 276n47;
urban north, 276n49
use vs. private ownership, 64, 83
vagrancy: cholos and, 41, 65;
Indians and, 39, 51, 70, 79, 92, 110, 206, 296n45;
labor and, 41, 51, 88;
municipal government and, 79;
racialization and, 92, 108–9
Vagrancy Act of 1855 (Greaser Act), 108–9
del Valle, Ygnacio and adobe, 31f, 78, 119, 130, 138
Vallejo, Mariano Guadalupe, 72, 271n24, 277n52, 295n38
vaqueros, 26
Varela, Serbulo, 2–3, 66
vecinos: ban on recreational activities, 118;
californios and, 54;
education and, 138;
extralegal justice against, 193;
indios and, 50;
intermarriage, 56;
justice and, 49;
land and, 45, 46, 51, 106, 171;
law and, 50;
printing in Spanish and, 118;
public policy and, 51–52;
racialization and, 9, 11, 171;
ranchería destruction and, 69, 297n48;
social status of, 40, 285n53;
Sonoratown and, 139, 140–41;
Vagrancy Act and, 108;
voting and, 45, 109;
Vignes, John Louis, 60
Villa, María del Rosario, 63, 294n31
violence: anti-Chinese, 190, 191, 211, 231, 233, 234, 323n55;
Calle de los Negros and, 139;
centrality of, 18;
Chinese, 188;
enforcement of laws and, 79;
Fernandino friars and, 24;
Foster and, 10;
founding period and, 32, 35;
against Indians, 88, 190, 302n108, 322n51;
interculture and, 92;
New Mexico and, 55;
Nirenburg on, 322n52;
poor people and, 75;
public policy and, 51;
racialization and, 20, 39, 92;
rancherías and, 70;
recruitment of families and, 52;
Star on, 312n12;
statistics (1850s), 88, 301n99;
Waite, James, 100
Waldrep, Christopher, 97, 302n108, 303n9, 323n57
ward system, 179–81, 191, 197–98, 199, 200, 201, 207, 247
(p.360) warehouses, 61–62, 142
Washington's Birthday parties, 75, 302n108
water: agrarian vs. capitalist states and, 298n72;
blue-ribbon commission on, 160;
California state law and, 318nn17, 19, and 20;
domestic drinking water distribution projects, 147–49, 155–56, 160, 162–63, 176–78, 221, 289n83, 316n70;
drinking water, laundry and, 81;
Dryden and, 146–49, 313n31;
education and, 299n72;
European Americans and, 165;
finances and, 159–60, 166;
floods and, 168, 173–74;
S. Foster on, 119;
Thomas Foster on, 110, 111;
founding period and, 26, 27–28, 175;
government and, 113–14;
ideology and, 162–63;
Indians and, 50;
interculture and, 81, 91, 117, 162–63, 173–78, 255;
land and, 152;
Mexican Californians and, 131, 163–65, 172;
municipal government and public policy and, 47–48, 115, 116, 118, 149, 152–57, 174–79, 221–22, 299n77, 307n59, 314n47;
ordinance (of 1856), 116–18, 307n59;
ordinance requiring purchase of, 222;
power, 114, 117;
racialization and, 117, 163–65, 174, 176–77;
rights and, 174–75, 318n17, 319n20;
separation of irrigation and wastewater, 221–22;
space and, 21;
water, communal ethos and: agrarian states and, 299n72;
commodification of water and, 174–75, 177, 222, 318n17;
Eddy v. Simpson and, 319n20;
hygiene versus, 330n62;
Mellus and Scott and, 113–14;
Spanish and Mexican periods and, 79;
U.S. immigrants and, 64. See also irrigation
Water Committee, 113, 147, 152, 155–56, 166, 316nn64 and 70, 317n71
water overseers. See zanjeros
water pump, 163, 164f
waterwheels, 148f, 154, 157, 167, 168, 175–76, 316n70, 317n70
waterworks, 163–64, 168, 176–77. See also Dryden, William G.
Wheeler, Henry Z., 110, 115–16, 307n46
Wheeler, John Ozias, 97–99, 303n11
White, Michael (Miguel Blanco), 66
whites and whiteness: anti-Chinese massacre and, 194;
Brown and, 303n8;
California State Constitutional Convention and, 72–74;
californios as, 291n8;
Chinese and, 329n48;
citizenship and, 127;
defined, 272n27;
economic factors, 57;
European Americans and, 91;
fluidity of category, 8, 9, 15;
Indians and, 284n50;
infrastructure and, 240, 249;
Mexican Californians and, 59;
minstrel shows and, 328n31;
party politics and, 129;
power and, 16;
racialization and, 252, 258;
suffrage and, 297n56;
travel writers and, 20. See also racialization
Whitman, George, 113, 133–34, 154
Williams, Isaac, 60, 61, 66, 130
Wilson, Benjamin Davis (Don Benito), 199, 293n22, 313n29;
background and career of, 55–56, 60, 291n2;
communal ethos and, 64;
elected to office, 62, 78;
Mexican Californians and, 127;
U.S. occupation and, 66;
vigilantism and, 89, 125
Wing, Ah, 182, 195
Wing Chung store, 182, 183, 184, 195
(p.361) Wolfskill, William, 56, 60, 64, 156, 160
Wolfskill family, 169
women and gender: californianas, 38;
Chinese, 184;
Chinese celebrations and, 219;
commercial enterprises and, 313n22;
Evening Journal on, 104;
histories and, 17;
immigrants, 25;
Indian, 24–25, 38–39, 50, 51, 52, 103, 106, 283n39, 329n45;
lack of women, 24;
land and, 37, 45, 46–47, 87, 153;
municipal government and public policy and, 49–51, 52, 280n10, 315n50;
racialization and, 283n39;
Scott on, 272n30;
Spanish settlers and, 280n4;
United States and, 18. See also families; intermarriage; male behavior and patriarchy
working classes. See labor
Workman, William, 55, 64
Workman Bros., 313n27
World's Columbian Exposition (Chicago, 1893), 3–4, 261, 264, 270n15
Worster, Donald, 114, 162, 298n72
“Yankees,” 58, 272n27. See also European Americans
Yorba, Bernardo and Ramona, 55
Yorba, José Antonio, 301n101
Yuen, Sam, 182, 183, 184–85, 187, 188, 195, 323n59
Yuma Indians, 3, 262–63, 270n12
Zanja Madre (Main Zanja), 47–48, 148–49, 154, 159, 167, 174, 176, 255, 307n58
zanjas: commercialization and, 152–53;
Eaton's project and, 155–56;
floods and, 168, 170;
founding period, 27, 289n83;
Keller's mill and, 156–57;
McLaughlin's project and, 131;
Mellus and Scott and, 113, 114, 119;
Morris Brothers and Prager and, 317n71;
pipes and, 221, 222;
private property and, 314n42, 315n49, 316n57;
sewers and, 220–21. See also irrigation
zanjeros: Aguilar as, 177, 202, 319n29;
commodification of water and, 113, 156, 176;
duties of, 80;
house of, 317n70;
informality of, 81;
McLaughlin's foundry and, 156;
private property and, 314n42;
role and history, 48, 80, 82, 330n61;
salary of, 82, 117, 230n61
Zaragosa Restaurant, 204
Zesch, Scott, 320n36, 321n47, 323n58, 324n64