This chapter discusses the proclamation of the protectorate by republicans in England. On December 16, 1653, England had its first written constitution, which was described as articles for the future government of the Commonwealth. The Instrument of Government was the creation of Major General John Lambert, who introduced it to the Council of Officers on December 13. When it was published to the nation on December 16, the Instrument opened by declaring “That the Supreme Legislative Assembly of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland shall be and reside in one person and the people assembled in parliament, the style of which person shall be the Lord Protector.” Subsequent clauses specified that the Lord Protector would be assisted with a Council of 13 to 21, in the presence of which every successive Protector was to swear his oath that he would not infringe the Instrument.
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