1937 to 1945
This chapter focuses on Buchenwald, one of Nazi Germany's six concentration camps during the Third Reich, and the inhumane treatment to which its prisoners were subjected between 1937 and 1945. Buchenwald was built after June 1937 on the Ettersberg, five miles north of Weimar, and became an incorporated constituency of the town on April 1, 1938. The chapter first describes the prevailing anti-Semitism during the period, which affected the fates of Jews such as Rosa Schmidt, Emil Fischer, Ludwig Leopold, Jenny Fleischer-Alt, and Otto Eisenbruch; all of them were destined to die unnatural deaths. It then considers the Allied bombings of Buchenwald and air raids on Weimar during World War II, signalling the end of horrors the camp had been known for.
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