Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
On Being a Language TeacherA Personal and Practical Guide to Success$

Norma Lopez-Burton and Denise Minor

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780300186895

Published to Yale Scholarship Online: May 2014

DOI: 10.12987/yale/9780300186895.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM YALE SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.yale.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Yale University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in YSO for personal use (for details see http://www.yale.universitypressscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 21 June 2018

(p.377) Index

(p.377) Index

Source:
On Being a Language Teacher
Publisher:
Yale University Press
Abbott, M., 120–121
absentmindedness, 155
Acquisition vs. Learning Hypothesis, 102
activities vocabulary, 45–46, 70–71
Affective Filter Hypothesis, 103–104, 113, 128
age of student and second language acquisition, 125–126
Alexander and the Terrible, Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Day (Viorst), 31
American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL), 79–80, 115, 120–121, 220
American football vs. soccer scenario, 93
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 224
anxiety:
Affective Filter Hypothesis, 103–104, 113, 128, 136–137;
on first day of class, 6–8, 19;
ways to reduce, 174, 231–233
Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA), 181
aptitude and second language acquisition, 126–127
Arabic heritage speakers, 211, 212
Are You My Mother? (Eastman), 31
Asher, James, 60
assessment, 257–294;
cheating and excuses, 289–291;
closed exercises, 272–276, 292–294;
of cultural knowledge and proficiency, 279–282;
evaluating exam quality, 289–294;
exit quizzes, 258–260;
explicit vs. implicit questions, 269;
grading, 261, 269, 272;
of grammar, 272–280;
in-class compositions, 282–288;
open formats, 276–279, 292–294;
of oral comprehension, 266–269;
of reading comprehension, 261–266, 269;
summative vs. formative, 257–261;
of writing, 269–272
attitude and second language acquisition, 128
audio-lingual method, 5
autism, 181, 224, 225, 226–228, 235
automatization, 110–111
awareness, 145–149, 161–162
back-channeling phrases, 45
Bargaining exercise, 59, 362
Bateman, B. E., 205
Beginning Spanish, 5
behavior intervention plans, 187–195;
calling a student out, 194–195;
identifying the problem early, 189;
implementing consequences, 195;
inviting the student back into the community, 193;
overview, 187–188;
putting a behavior on extinction, 192–193;
using empathy and positive attention, 189–192
(p.378) behaviorism, 180–182, 187–188
Bjork, D. W., 181
Blackboard, 245
blindness, 230–231
Bravo system, 132
Buckley, Kate, 317, 318, 320
bullfighting, 82–83
butcher, the baker, the candlestick-maker approach, 133–134, 185–186
Carreira, Maria, 204, 205
CDs, 240
cell phones, 183
ceviche syndrome, 146–147
Chain Stories exercise, 67–68
chat rooms, 247
cheating, 289–291
Chinese heritage speakers, 204, 209–210, 212
Chomsky, Noam, 97–101
Class Newspaper exercise, 69
classroom management, 178–201;
behaviorism and, 180–182;
effective teachers and, 161–164;
establishing rules and procedures for, 179–180, 182–184, 200–201;
fostering a classroom community and, 180, 184–187, 201;
problematic students (see behavior intervention plans)
closed exercises, 272–276
clothing vocabulary, 59
clueless teachers, 145–149
Clunies-Ross, P., 187
cocktail party searches, 54–57
cognitive style and second language acquisition, 126–127
Colombi, M. C., 204, 213
comic strips, 32–34
commands, 60, 61, 91, 226–227
Communication standard, one of the Five C’s, 117, 122
communicative competence, 127
communicative tasks, 39–76;
benefits of using, 39;
cooperative writing as, 65–70;
debates, 62;
dictation, 63;
essential features of, 39–42;
general guidelines, 42–44;
guided conversations, 45–46;
individual writing as, 70–72;
information gap activities, 47–50;
in the instructional sequence, 18;
mixers (information searches), 52–60;
pre-reading and post-reading activities as, 72–74;
reaching a consensus, 46–47;
role-playing, 50–51;
sample task activities, 355–363;
using TPR (Total Physical Response), 60–61
Communities standard, one of the Five C’s, 119–120, 122
community, classroom, 133–134, 184–187, 201
Comparisons standard, one of the Five C’s, 119, 122
competition/games as communicative tasks, 64–65
comprehensible input, 21–26, 37–38, 146–147
conflicts in the workplace, 345, 347–348
Connections standard, one of the Five C’s, 118–119, 122
consensus tasks, 46–47
control of classroom. See classroom management
conversational reactions, 45
cover letters, 320
creativity, 172–173
credentials/licenses/certificates, 326–327
Critical Period Hypothesis, 99, 125–126
cultural differences in the workplace, 342–343
culture, teaching:
American football vs. soccer scenario, 93;
breaking stereo-types, 83–85, 94;
history of, 77–78;
importance of, 78–80;
integrating language and culture, 89–92, 170;
knowledge vs. proficiency, 80–81, 180–182;
testing, 279–282;
using a cross-cultural approach, 81–83, 93;
using readings, 85–86;
using songs, 87
Cultures standard, one of the Five C’s, 117–118, 122
curriculum vitae (CV), 318–319, 337
dates, 70–71
days of the week, 47–48
(p.379) deadlines, 149, 151
debates, 62
Decade of Foreign Language Standards, A (Phillips and Abbot), 120–121
Defend Your Side exercise, 62, 362–363
dehydrated sentences, 275–276
description activities, 70–71, 249–250. See also adjectives
dictation communicative activity, 63
disability support services (DSS), 224
discovery:
and communicative exchange, 40–41;
guided, 84–85
discussion boards/forums, 247
document cameras, 240–241
Dörnyei, Z., 124
Do This, Do That exercise, 60–61
Do You Want to Do Something Together? exercise, 47–48
DVDs, 240
Eastman, P. D., 31
education job fairs, 324
Ellis, R., 124
e-mail, 245–246, 345
employment websites, 324–325
encouragement, 127, 162, 165
engagement, 21–24, 40, 161–162, 172
English as second language (ESL) teachers vs. native language arts teachers, 205
entertainers (type of teacher), 149–152
enthusiasm, 172
exams. See assessment
excuses for homework and exams, 289–291
exit quizzes, 258–260
expectations, 182–184
explanations, clear and simple, 164–165
explicit vs. implicit test questions, 269
extroverts vs. introverts, 127–128
Fabulous Vacation exercise, 69–70
Family Reunion exercise, 55–56, 357–359
Family Tree exercise, 63, 363
family vocabulary, 29, 55–56, 63, 357–359, 363
Famous Person exercise, 365–366
fill-in-the-blank exercises, 275
finger-waggers (type of teacher), 152–155
first day of class, 3–12;
dealing with anxiety, 6–8, 19;
discussion of the syllabus, 8–10;
for new teachers, 3–6;
use of target language on, 8–9;
using jokes and humor, 8;
using student names on, 10–12. See also lesson planning
foreign-born teachers, 152–153
Fox, M., 99
Frawley, W., 101
French heritage speakers, 210
French translation errors, 169
future tense, 47–48, 90–91, 251–252
Galloway, V., 124
games/competition as communicative tasks, 64–65
Gass, Susan, 106–108, 117
German translation errors, 168–169
gestures, 142–143
Goodman, Ken, 101
gossip, 344–345
grading, 261, 269, 272, 283–289
grammar:
assessment, 272–280;
vs. content, 173
grammarians (type of teacher), 157–159
greetings, 50–51
grouping students, 42–43, 133
guardian angel teachers, 142–145, 177
guided conversations, 45–46
guided discovery, 84–85
guided practice, 18
heirs apparent (type of teacher), 159–161
heritage language learners (heritage speakers), 202–221;
assessing the needs of, 206–208;
avoiding the laundry list (p.380) approach, 211–213;
benefits of classes designed for, 204–205, 220;
challenges of teaching combined classes, 204–205;
continuing education for teachers of, 219–220;
developing goals for, 209–213;
giving leadership roles to, 218–219;
importance of using fun activities for, 219;
inferiority feelings of, 202–203;
motivation and, 137;
respecting varieties of a language, 208–209;
and subjunctive mood, 214–215;
using homework packets, 213;
varying the level of input, 213–218
Heritage Languages in America, 219–220
high school jobs:
applying and interviewing for, 316–337;
choosing between multiple job offers, 332–335;
cover letters, 320;
credentials/licenses/certificates, 326–327;
curriculum vitae (CV), 318–319, 337;
education job fairs, 324;
employment websites, 324–325;
interview guidelines, 328–330;
letters of recommendation, 319–320;
overview, 316–317, 335;
placement files, 317;
professional appearance and, 327–328;
relocating and, 325–326;
teaching demonstrations, 330–332;
typical interview questions, 320–324
homework packets, 213
hot dogs, 82
humility, 174–176
imperfect tense, 57, 210, 212
implicit vs. explicit test questions, 269
indirect object pronouns, 37, 59
Individual Education Plan (IEP), 223
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), 222
information gap tasks, 47–50
Innateness Hypothesis, 100–101
input:
from comic strips, 32–34;
comprehensible, 21–26, 37–38, 146–147;
from familiar children’s stories, 31;
general tips for, 34–35;
vs. grammar rules and vocabulary, 24–25;
importance of engagement and acquisition, 21–24;
and instructional sequence, 18;
from Internet videos, 88–89, 243–245, 255–256;
from made-up stories, 29–30;
from personal stories, 27–28;
from songs, 25–26, 87, 239–240, 255;
sources of, 26–34;
from text (short stories, poems, newspaper articles, magazines), 34;
use of repetition, 25–26;
varying levels of, for heritage speakers, 213–218
Input, Interaction, and the Second Language Learner (Gass), 106–107
Input + 1 hypothesis, 103
instructional sequences, 16–19, 167
interaction analysis, 106–108
interpersonal communication, 117
interpretive expression, 117
introverts vs. extroverts, 127–128
investment, theory of, 108–109
iPods, 240
Is It True? exercise, 65
Jackson Hardin, C., 180, 186, 192
Japan, expressing emotion in, 83
job politics, 338–353;
avoiding gossip, 344–345;
benefits of watch-and-listen approach, 341–342;
bridging cultural differences among colleagues, 342–343;
dealing with conflicts, 347–348;
departmental competition, 348–350;
e-mail and workplace conflicts, 345;
handling parents complaints, 348–350;
importance of finding a mentor, 340–341;
importance of relationships with administrative staff, 343–344;
setting goals/priorities in new job, 345–347;
stress from, 351–352
Johnson, Holly, 330
Kagan, O., 202
Kiehuis, M., 187
Krashen, Stephen, 102–104, 128
Labarca, A., 124
Language Acquisition Device (LAD), 100–101, 112
language lab activities, 364–370
(p.381) Lantolf, J., 101
Larson-Freeman, D., 124
lateness, 155–156
Lead Me exercise, 61
Learning Management Systems (LMSs), 245
learning outside the classroom, 165
Lennenburg, Eric, 101
lesson planning, 12–19;
importance of, 12;
instructional sequence, 16–19;
sample of detailed plan, 13–16;
types of, 12–13
Let’s Go Shopping exercise, 370
letters of recommendation, 319–320
likes and dislikes (writing example), 66–67
Little, E., 187
LMSs (Learning Management Systems), 245
location adverbs, 32–34, 49–50
location verbs, 89–90
Long, M. H., 124
Long, Michael, 117, 124
Lovaas, O. Ivar, 181
Lynch, A., 204
MacWhinney, Brian, 101, 111
managed competition (games), 64–65
Marzano, Jana, 184
Marzano, Robert, 184
matching columns exercises, 275
McLaughlin, Barry, 101, 110
memory problems, 228–230
Menchú, Rigoberta, 86
mentors, 340–341
Miller, B. L., 204
Mini-Biography exercise, 70–71, 363
Minor, Denise, 108, 124, 182
mistakes, laughing at, 146–147, 149, 174
mixers, 52–60
mnemonics, 25–26, 36–37
Modern Computational Linguistics (Natural Language Processing, NLP), 101
Modern Languages Association inter-views, 306–308
Moodle, 245
morcillas (blood sausages), 81
motivation, 108–110, 129–136;
academic, 129–132;
internal, 129–130;
multiple motivation approach, 134–136, 137;
rewards and, 181–182;
social, 132–133
multiple-choice exercises, 275
names of students, using and memorizing, 10–12
narrating in past tense, 27–28, 60–61, 67–68, 69–70
narrating in present tense, 60–61
National Standards Collaborative Board, the Five C’s, 115–123;
Communication standard, 117, 122;
Communities standard, 119–120, 122;
Comparisons standard, 119, 122;
Connections standard, 118–119, 122;
Cultures standard, 117–118, 122;
impact of, 120–121;
implementation of, 121–123;
overview, 115–117
native language arts teachers vs. English as second language (ESL) teachers, 205
Natural Approach, 101
natural teachers:
class mechanics practices of, 167–172;
delivery practices of, 172–176;
presence and control practices of, 161–164;
teaching and learning practices of, 164–166
negotiation sequences, 107–108
nervousness. See anxiety
new teachers, quotes from, 175
Norton, Bonny, 108–109
objective culture, 80–81, 89
obsessive-compulsive disorder, 233–234
office politics. See job politics
Omaggio Hadley, A., 124
open-ended exams, 276–280
oral comprehension testing, 91, 266–269
organization, 167
Output Hypothesis, 104–106
overconfidence, 156–157
parents’ complaints, 348–350
past tense, 27–28, 36, 60–61, 67–68, 69–72, 90
patience, 167
(p.382) Pavlov, Ivan, 180–181
personality and second language acquisition, 127–128
personal significance and communicative tasks, 41
personal stories, 27–28
Phillips, J. K., 120–121
physical descriptions, 249–251
Pica, Teresa, 107
Pickering, Debra, 184
Pienemann, M., 101
placement files, 317
Polinsky, M., 202
politics. See job politics
possessive adjectives, 63
Potowski, Kim, 109, 204, 205
PowerPoint, 87–88, 241–243
praise, 162
pre-and post-reading activities, 72–74, 170
preferences, 66–67, 250–251
presentational mode, 117
present progressive tense, 30–31
present tense, 34, 60–61
preterit tense (present perfect tense), 65, 69
Price Is Right exercise, 46–47
prizes (incentives), 42, 46–47, 52, 53, 150, 259
problematic students. See behavior intervention plans
professionalism, 171, 316–317, 323
pronouns, 37, 59, 228–229, 253–254
purpose and communicative tasks, 41
questions, formulating, 58–59, 91, 249–251
reading:
choosing text for teaching culture, 85–86;
comprehension testing, 261–266, 269;
heritage speakers and, 104–105;
pre-reading and post-reading activities, 72–74
reflexive verbs, 53
reinforcement, 181. See also prizes (incentives)
repetition, 25–26, 30–31
respect, 162–163
role-playing tasks, 43–44, 50–51
rules and procedures, 179–180, 182–184
Rymer, R., 101, 124
Santa Claus, 89
second language acquisition, factors affecting, 124–137;
academic motivation, 129–132;
age, 125–126;
anxiety levels, 128–129, 136–137;
aptitude and cognitive style, 126–127;
attitude, 128;
engagement, 21–24;
internal motivation, 129–130;
personality, 127–128;
second language acquisition, theories and research, 97–114;
Acquisition vs. Learning Hypothesis, 102;
Affective Filter Hypothesis, 103–104, 113;
Chomsky, Universal Grammar, and Language Acquisition Device (LAD), 97–101, 112;
focusing on communication, 112–113;
Gass and interaction analysis, 106–108;
grammar instruction and, 110–112;
importance of using target language, 112, 114;
Input + 1 hypothesis, 103;
Krashen’s theories, 102–104;
motivation and language choices, 108–110;
Natural Approach, 101;
Swain and Output Hypothesis, 104–106;
Shen, Helen, 204
signature grid activities, 52–54
Silva-Corvalán, Carmen, 214
Simon Says exercise, 60
Skinner, B. F., 181
Skype, 246, 308–309
soccer vs. American football scenario, 93
space cadets (type of teacher), 155–157
spacial arrangements for communicative tasks, 43
Spanish heritage speakers, 210–211, 212
(p.383) Spanish translation errors, 169
speaking:
heritage learners and, 104–105;
Speed Dating exercise, 58–59, 362
spontaneity, 174
Standards for Foreign Language Learning, 79–80
stereotypes, cultural, 83–85, 94
stories:
made-up, 29–30;
personal, 27–28;
with students as protagonists, 30–31;
using childhood favorites, 31
storytellers, 174
stress, 103–104, 113. See also anxiety
Strip Story exercise, 74
student-centered classes, 171–172, 176–177
students with disabilities and learning differences, 222–235;
anxiety, 231–233;
autism, 225, 226–228, 235;
blindness, 230–231;
effective teachers and, 165;
laws regarding, 222–224;
memory problems, 228–230;
obsessive-compulsive disorder, 233–234;
school disability support services (DSS), 224–225;
students using wheelchairs, 226–228
subjective culture, 80–81, 89
subjunctive mood, 62, 214–215, 273
Swain, Merrill, 104–106
syllabi, 8–10, 183–184, 201
Syntactic Structures (Chomsky), 99
target language, use of, 8–9, 112, 114, 144–145
Tarone, E., 101
teachers, types of, 141–177, 174–176;
clue-less, 145–149;
entertainers, 149–152;
finger-waggers, 152–155;
grammarians, 157–159;
guardian angels, 142–145, 177;
heirs apparent, 159–161;
naturals (see natural teachers);
new, quotes from, 175;
space cadets, 155–157
teaching credentials/licenses/certificates, 326–327
teaching demonstrations, 330–332
teaching philosophy statements, 299–301
technology in the classroom, 236–256;
advantages and disadvantages of, 248;
CDs, 240;
chat rooms, 247;
discussion boards/forums, 247;
document cameras, 240–241;
DVDs, 240;
e-mail, 245–246;
importance of, 238–239;
importance of mastering teaching and low-technology first, 236–238, 254–255;
iPods, 240;
language lab activities, 248–249, 364–370;
and naturals, 172;
PowerPoint, 87–88, 241–243;
sample lab exercises and no-tech alternatives, 249–254;
Skype, 246;
and teaching culture, 87–89;
tech failure and backup plans, 256;
Twitter, 246–247;
telling time, 47–48
Terrell, Tracy, 101–102
testing. See assessment
Thornberg, R., 179, 182
Three Kings Day, 88–89
Tomlinson, Carol Ann, 205–206
Tour de France, 83
TPR (Total Physical Response), 60–61
translation errors, 168–169
true/false exercises, 275
Twitter, 246–247
Universal Grammar, 99–101
university jobs:
applying and interviewing for, 297–315;
campus interviews, 309–313;
clothing guidelines, 305–306;
handling illegal questions, 312, 314–315;
Modern Languages Association interviews, 306–308;
phone interviews, 308;
preparation list, 298–299;
sample interview questions, 301–305;
Skype interviews, 308–309;
small talk, 310;
table manners, 310–312;
teaching philosophy statements, 299–301;
thank-you letters, 312, 314–315;
using personal websites for, 301
Valdés, G., 204
Varonis, E., 107–108
(p.384) verbs, simple, 50–51, 90
videos, 71–72, 88–89
Viorst, Judith, 31
visual impairment, 230–231
vocabulary and culture, 91–92
Vygotsky, Lev, 340
warm-up questions, 17–18, 56–57, 360–361
weather expressions, 92, 251–252, 256, 366–369
Webb, J. B., 204
What Do We Know? exercise, 73
What Do You Do? exercise, 53–54, 355
What Happened in the Video? exercise, 71–72
What Is the Name of That Building? exercise, 49–50
What Is the Weather Like? exercise, 366–369
wheelchairs, students using, 226–228
Who Is This Person? exercise, 54–57, 66–67, 356
whole-class searches, 58–59
Whole Language, 101–102
Wilkinson, S. L., 205
Windholz, G., 180
World of Foods exercise, 369–370
writing:
assessment, 269–272, 283–288;
in class compositions, 282–288;
cooperative, 65–70;
individual writing used for communicative activities, 70–72
You See a Friend at a Bookstore exercise, 50–51