This book investigates the evolution of certification as a form of private governance by focusing on three key industries: forestry, coffee, and fisheries. It offers an account of how market conditions and early decisions influenced the maturation of social and environmental certification programs. More specifically, it analyzes the influence of market demand as well as institutional development and change on the development of certification. By taking a cross-program and cross-sector look at the rise and evolution of certification systems, the book sheds light on the risks and possibilities of this form of governance. It examines how certification programs have sought to play a role in ameliorating social and environmental challenges. It also highlights a number of notable differences in the histories and trajectories of such programs.
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