Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
The World's Oldest ChurchBible, Art, and Ritual at Dura-Europos, Syria$

Michael Peppard

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780300213997

Published to Yale Scholarship Online: May 2016

DOI: 10.12987/yale/9780300213997.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM YALE SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.yale.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Yale University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in YSO for personal use (for details see http://www.yale.universitypressscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 21 June 2018

(p.285) Subject Index

(p.285) Subject Index

Source:
The World's Oldest Church
Publisher:
Yale University Press

Page numbers in italic type indicate illustrations.

abecedaria, 46–47
Abraham, bishop of Nisibis, 106
absolutes, 196
absolution, 97, 193
Acts, book of, 97
Acts of Thomas, 21, 26, 28, 29, 96, 130;
anointing and, 51–53, 54, 75, 137, 192;
betrothal to Christ and, 132, 133;
Christ the Physician and, 96, 97, 99;
Christ the warrior and, 83–84;
Greek and Syriac versions, 231nn15,16
Adam and Eve, 192, 193, 203–11;
Marcion’s teachings and, 207;
Mary’s purity overturning curse of, 132, 153, 193, 211;
Pauline interpretation and, 206, 208;
primordial disobedience of, 205;
reunion in paradise of, 138, 210;
separation of, 131;
as symbol of new creation, 204;
Syrian theological dominant images of, 210
Adam and Eve (Dura-Europos baptistery painting), 20, 28, 43, 100, 145, 203–9, 204, plate 6; altered perspective of, 205–9;
as inset in shepherd and flock painting, 100, 101, 203–4;
interpretation of, 205–6
Adelphi sarcophagus (Syracuse), Annunciation depiction, 165
adoption, as initiation metaphor, 55
afterlife, 108, 127, 152. See also Last Judgment; salvation
Albright, William F., 27
Alexander the Great, 5
alphabet inscriptions. See inscriptions
Ambrose of Milan, 103, 104
American Oriental Society, 25
American Schools of Oriental Research, 25–26
ampullae, 119, 183, 185
amulets, 96, 188, 189, 190;
Annunciation silver armband, 168, 168, 186
androgyny, myth of primal, 208
angel Gabriel. See Gabriel
Anne (mother of Mary), 152, 159, 187
Annunciation, 41, 43, 45, 156, 158–82, 188, 189, 199, 207;
Luke narration of, 159, 160, 216;
pilgrimage and, 165, 166, 167, 168–69, 185–89, 188;
Syriac ritual texts on, 193
Annunciation iconic tradition, 29, 43, 45, 50, 141, 159–79, 180–83, 193–200;
allegorical interpretation, 174, 199;
angel Gabriel inclusion, 195 (see also Gabriel); earliest extant examples of, 164, 165, 166, 166, 172, 195–200;
flower in vase and, 162, 163, 169;
as indoor domestic scene, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 172, 188, 189;
lines of incarnation indicated, 162, 163, 172, 179–81, 182, 193;
Mary’s water pitcher and, 165, 169, 172, 174, 179, 187;
transitional type, 186;
tree sprouting and, 174;
at water source, 158–62, 165, 166, 172, 176, 181–82, 187, 189, 193–98, 214. See also woman at a well
Annunciation morphological variety:
Ambiguous Rope-to-Vessel, 168, 168–69, 169, 170, 174, 175, 176, 182, 186, 189;
At the Spring, 165, 166, 172, 176, 187, 188, 199;
At the Well, (p.286) Face-to-Face, 172–74, 173, 175, 191;
At the Well, Looking Back, 174, 176, 176, 177, 177, 178, 179;
Indoors while Spinning, Face-to-Face, 166, 167, 182;
Indoors while Spinning, Looking Back, 165–66, 167, 172, 185, 186;
Vestigial Vessel, 168, 172, 186;
With Spinning Tools, 171, 171–72, 174
anointing, 22, 30, 33, 40–68, 87, 104, 140, 151, 212;
Acts of Thomas on, 51–53, 54, 75, 137, 192;
before baptism, 48, 53, 54, 55, 56, 59–60, 66, 83, 103, 109, 127, 131, 134, 155, 193;
in bridal chamber, 41, 57, 59, 65, 122, 137;
centrality in early Christian Syria, 41, 49, 59–60, 85, 140, 145, 218;
central meanings of, 56–57;
changes in emphasis/meanings of, 54–55;
of David, 49, 50, 60, 62, 63–64, 65, 67, 68, 82–83, 84, 86, 106–7, 149, 213;
diverse functions of, 50–51, 53;
Dura baptistery and, 108, 117, 131–32, 150, 202;
of forehead vs. full body, 83, 84;
incarnation and, 155;
as initiation rite, 48, 50–63, 105, 155, 192, 213;
of Jesus as Christ, 2–3, 55, 57, 62, 83, 86–87, 90, 149;
of kings, 41, 49, 50, 51–53, 54, 82, 83;
noncanonical texts on, 51–53;
of priests, 51, 54;
primacy of, 51, 56–58, 131;
same-sex, 53–54;
of the sick, 97;
of soldiers, 41, 57, 59, 84, 85;
“western” vs. “eastern,” 55
anointing oil. See oil
Anselm, 198
anthropomorphic divinities, 165
Antioch, 10, 20, 21, 47, 51, 134, 135;
ordines of its liturgy, 192–93
Antoninus from Piacenza, 187
Aphrahat the Persian, 26, 29–30, 82, 97, 132, 133, 135–36, 146, 192;
Demonstrations, 136, 211;
on virginity of Mary, 153
apocrypha. See noncanonical texts
Apollo, 112
apologists, 121
apostles, 20, 57, 97;
in Syria, 20. See also disciples; specific names
Apostolic Constitutions, 147
Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane, 122, 132–33
apotropaic items, 46–47, 80
Apuleius, 124
Aramaic language, 6, 40, 51, 193
archers, 7, 9, 10, 84;
mounted, 78–79, 79, 80
Arculf, 189
Armenia, 14, 29, 45, 47, 54, 55, 141, 161;
Annunciation scenes, 165, 174, 179, 181, 191;
Christology, 174;
nativity date, 56
Armenian Gospel of the Infancy, 161
army. See military; Roman army
Artemis, 15, 124
art historians:
Annunciation portrayals and, 160, 162–63, 163, 164, 181, 197;
David portrayals and, 74–75;
interdisciplinary approach, 33;
interpretation of ritual spaces, 33–35;
methodological changes, 4;
postmodern epistemology and, 196–97;
processional art and, 111–12, 127–28;
ritual-centered visuality and, 32–40, 195–98;
text-image correspondence and, 195;
and use of comparanda, 29
artistic motifs. See Byzantine art; early Christian art; specific subjects
asceticism, 30, 97, 106, 121, 135, 136, 137, 139, 160, 184, 210–11. See also celibacy
Asclepius, 95
Assyria, 5, 20
astral powers, 46
Asturica (Astorga), Spain, 53
(p.287) Atargatis, 14
Athanasius, 66, 67, 103, 234n59, 236–37n114
athletic events, 57, 59, 84, 101
atonement, 205, 206
Attridge, Harold W., 190
Augustine of Hippo, 103, 104, 127, 148
aurality, 36–37
Aurelian’s column, 72
Aventine Mithraeum (Rome), 38, 112
Azzanathkona, 15
Bacchus/Dionysus, 112
Balaam, 164
baptism, 44, 81, 82, 84, 140, 150–52, 233n41;
anointing prior to, 48, 53, 54, 55, 56, 59–60, 66, 83, 103, 109, 127, 131, 134, 155, 193;
approved days for, 47;
baptistery paintings’ signification of, 108;
biblical betrothal scene linked with, 197;
birth mysticism, 192, 198;
bridal chamber metaphor for, 135, 147;
celibacy and, 135, 136;
descent of Holy Spirit and, 155;
early Christian meaning of, 95, 105, 134, 140, 155, 156, 157–58, 182, 205, 218, 228n73;
Gregory of Nazianzus on, 58, 82, 134–35;
healing miracle and, 95, 97–98;
as illumination, 58, 134, 218;
incarnation and, 56, 58, 149, 154, 155, 193, 194, 199, 212;
of Jesus, 55, 56, 58, 67, 120, 131, 149, 155, 169, 194, 209–10;
military motif and, 233n44;
in name of Christ, 59, 86–87, 103, 120, 151, 205;
Pauline death mysticism and, 55, 89, 119–21, 131–32, 151–52, 205, 206;
pilgrim tokens picturing, 185;
Psalm 23 and, 87;
as rebirth through water, 91, 208, 209, 212–13 (see also water); re-entry into paradise through, 207;
Samaritan Woman and, 157–58, 195;
shepherd and flock imagery and, 31, 87, 102–3, 105;
solitaries and, 210–11;
sphragis (seal) of, 59, 107, 190;
spiritual marriage and, 133, 134;
veiled sanctuary for, 147;
virginity and, 141, 149;
Wise and Foolish Virgins and, 134
Baptismal Imagery in Early Christianity (Jensen), 24, 203
“Baptismal Patterns in Early Syria” (Spinks), 155, 156
Baptism in the Early Church (Ferguson), 227n73
baptistery (Dura-Europos), 2–4, 21, 24, 40–43, 78, 80–81, 107–10, 197–203;
artistic program of, 47–48, 86, 107–8, 139, 202, 203;
Christian initiation procedure in, 22, 30, 149–50, 156, 211;
continuing scholarship on, 28–29, 44;
counterclockwise (right-to-left) processional movement around, 40–41, 93, 94;
dominant symbols and traditions of, 42–43, 206, 218–19;
eastern wall, 20, 42, 75, 86;
font, 42, 99, 100, 108, 112, 140, 145, 147, 154, 156;
font canopy, 144, 145, 147, 200;
full-length book on, 28–39;
garden scene (see Adam and Eve); historical imagination concerning, 212, 218;
ideographic images and, 107, 195;
initiates (see subhead neophyte experience of);
interpretive approaches to, 1–4, 27–28, 32–33, 39–40, 41, 45, 107–10, 111, 115, 117–19, 128, 140, 146, (p.288) 195–201;
isometric of, 18, 19, 20;
Jesus implicit/explicit depictions, 86, 87–99, 107–10;
marriage and wedding motifs, 42, 129, 154, 192, 214;
missing wall, 115, 117;
narrative imagery of, 107, 108;
neophyte experience of, 40, 43, 46, 47, 88, 90, 110, 114, 210–12;
northern wall upper panel scenes, 41–42, 47–48, 58, 75, 86;
Odes of Solomon and, 212–18;
personal name graffiti found in, 22, 30, 40, 46–47, 68, 114, 139;
ritual-centered viewing of, 32, 39, 45, 80–81, 195–98;
salvation emphasis of, 43, 198–201;
southern wall, 41, 48–49, 49, 86, 91, 156, plate 3; southwest corner, 43;
threshold of, 48, 48;
as tomb, 42, 154;
upper vs. lower panel paintings, 107–8;
visual description of, 41–42;
water imagery, 145;
as womb, 43, 154
baptistery, Ravenna, 103, 112, 158, 166, 183
baptistery, San Giovanni in Fonte (Naples), 158, 182–83, 183
Bardaisan of Edessa, 20, 28, 106;
Book of the Laws of Countries, 46
Basilides, 232n33
bathing ritual (wedding), 137
Bauer, Walter, 26
Bawit (Egypt), 62
Be’er, well of, 69, 70, 146
bema, 135
Berenike (Egypt), 7
best man, as metaphor, 129, 130
Beth Alpha synagogue, 15
Bethesda, pool of, 41–42, 93, 95, 96, 98
betrothal at well, 158, 182, 190, 195, 197
“betrothed to Christ,” 137
Bible, 30, 45;
art illustrating, 31–34, 39, 75–76, 108, 113, 195;
King James Version, 129;
shepherd and sheep allusions, 101–4. See also Hebrew Bible; New Testament; specific books, gospels, and persons
Bibliothèque Nationale (Paris), 177
birth, 132, 138, 150–55, 193, 218;
amulet and, 187, 189;
conception and, 216;
as initiation metaphor, 55, 209–10;
oil-fire-water-Spirit connection, 58;
as purpose of marriage, 151;
rebirth and, 22, 192, 209;
from virginal womb, 153–54, 216. See also pregnancy
birth of Jesus. See nativity
Bisconti, Fabrizio, 162
bishops, 97
“Blessed Is the Creator of Light” (hymn), 194
Blessed Virgin. See Mary
Bobbio (Italy), token collection, 185, 186
bodily integrity, 30, 97, 208
bodily mortification, 122
Bodmer Papyri, 160
“Book of James.” See Protevangelium of James
Book of the Laws of Countries (Bardaisan), 46
“Bordeaux pilgrim,” 184
Bosio, Antonio, 164
Boston College, 28
Botticelli, 162
Bradshaw, Paul, 23, 24, 120;
The Search for the Origins of Christian Worship, 23
branding of property. See seal
Braund, David, 75, 77, 78
Breasted, James Henry, 12–13, 26;
The Oriental Forerunners of Byzantine Painting, 27
Brescia Casket, 182
bridal chamber:
anointing and, 41, 57, 59, 65, 122, 137;
Aramaic/Syriac word for, 193;
Dura-Europos baptistery as, 154, 214;
entering of solitaries into, (p.289) 211;
“imagined,” 138;
initiation as, 138;
literal vs. metaphorical, 135, 136–37, 147;
Mary’s womb as, 154, 199–200, 202;
as metaphor, 129, 132, 135, 138, 214, 215;
processions of virgins to, 42, 109, 122–23, 146–47;
spiritual marriage in, 27, 44, 59, 109, 124, 127, 137–38;
temple as, 199;
union in, 151, 153
bride: of Christ, 132, 133, 139, 197;
as initiation image, 28, 43, 109, 137, 138, 139, 147, 149–50, 190;
male virgins as, 134, 140;
Syrian church as, 192;
virginity symbols, 127, 136. See also marriage; spiritual marriage
bridegroom, 126, 127, 129–30, 131, 133, 134, 136, 139, 146, 149, 154, 199, 203, 204, 215;
as lamb of God, 108, 109;
“wedding gift” of, 151
bridesmaids, 126, 127, 129
Britain, Middle East mandate, 11–12, 13
British Museum, 173
Brock, Sebastian, 57, 85, 98, 132, 140–41, 192–93, 211
Brooks, Phillips, “O Little Town of Bethlehem,” 201
Brown, Frank, 14
Brown, Peter, 30
Buddhism, 58
burial, 33
burning bush, 102
Byzantine art, 29, 37, 45, 146;
Annunciation iconography, 162, 176, 176, 180;
pilgrimage, 184–85
Byzantine Church of the Multiplication (Tabgha, Galilee), 143
Byzantine monastery (Chora, Istanbul), 77
Byzantion (journal), 39
Byzantium, 35–36
Caesar, Julius, crossing of Rubicon by, 77, 78
Callinicum, 21
Campbell, Alastair, 121
Campin, Robert, Annunciation Triptych, 162, 163, 169
Cappadocia, 58
Carrhae, battle of, 77–78
Carthage, 21, 112
Cartlidge, David, 153
Cassiodorus of Vivarium, 103
catacomb paintings, 37, 38, 43, 96, 99, 112, 142, 164, 182
catechesis, 46, 47, 57, 59, 84, 85, 107, 139, 151, 152
Catechetical Homilies (Cyril of Jerusalem), 27
Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels (Los Angeles), 37, 112
Cathedral of St. John the Baptist (Monza), 185
Catholic Church art, 113
Cavallo, Guglielmo, 143
celibacy, 97, 106, 132, 133, 135, 136, 137, 208–10. See also spiritual marriage
censers, 119, 183;
Annunciation scene, 166, 172, 176, 176, 185
Chalcedon Christology, 174
charity, 127
chastity, 106, 136
chemical warfare, earliest known use of, 11
childbirth. See birth
children of the resurrection, 211
chiliarch (military term), 8–9
chi-rho (sign of Christ) 104
chrism, 57, 131
chrismation. See anointing
Christ. See Jesus Christ
Christ Emmanuel and the Annunciation (Mar Musa al-Habashi), 181
Christianity:
contemporary church art, 112;
as cross-centered, 198;
derivation of word, 57;
Reformation view of art, 196
(p.290) Christianity, early. See early Christian art; early Christianity; Syrian Christianity
Christian “kiss,” 137
Christmas. See nativity
Christmas carol, 201
Christogram, 104
Christology, 174, 233n39;
exemplarist, 93
christos (anointed one), 51, 60
Christ the Miracle Worker in Early Christian Art (Jefferson), 96
Chrysostom, John, 27, 57, 84, 95, 140, 152;
baptismal instructions of, 134, 135, 136;
prebaptismal anointing and, 59–60;
Psalm 45 commentary of, 148–50, 151;
spiritual marriage and, 133–34, 138, 139
chuppah, 193, 215
church, Dura-Europos. See house-church
Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem), 185
circumcision, Christian form of, 59
Clark, Elizabeth, 136, 139
classical imagery, 35, 100, 122
clay jar graffiti, 40–41, 47, 139
Clement of Alexandria, 53, 102, 109, 121, 124, 232n33
Cloisters Collection (New York), 162
Codex Alexandrinus, 234n59
Codex Purpureus Rossanensis (Rossano Gospels), 143–46, 215, plate 8
Codex Sinaiticus, 234n59
cohors XX Palmyrenorum. See Palmyra; Roman army
Columbia University, 25
Constantine the Great, emperor of Rome, 1–2, 38, 63, 184
Constantinople, 134, 135, 181
conversion, 58, 97, 99, 104, 120. See also initiation
Corinth, 7
covenant, 234n64
Crassus, Marcus Licinius, 77–78, 81
creation, 207, 208, 212
criophorus, 100, 102
Crosby, Margaret, 14
cross, 131, 185, 205;
as central to Christianity, 198;
pilgrim reverence for, 185;
salvation through, 200;
sign of the, 104–5;
stations of the, 113;
“true,” 171, 171, 184
crucifixion, 185, 198, 200
Crusades, 141, 181
cultic activity, 36, 60, 112, 124
Cumont, Franz, 13, 14
Cyprus, 181;
plates of David’s life, 236n110
Cyril of Alexandria, 103
Cyril of Jerusalem, 57, 58, 81, 95, 103, 105;
baptismal catecheses, 151, 152, 233n51;
Catechetical Homilies, 27;
Procatechesis, 134, 147;
spiritual marriage and, 133, 136, 138, 139
Damascus, 20
Daniélou, Jean, 73
Danube River, 75, 76, 77
Daphnis and Chloe, 122–23
David, 60–75;
anointing of, 49, 50, 60, 62–63, 64, 65, 67, 68, 82, 83, 84, 86, 106–7, 149, 213;
art depicting, 74, 74–75, 111 (see also David slaying Goliath); Codex Rossanensis on, 148;
Cyprus plates of life of, 236n110;
Dura synagogue depiction of, 49, 50;
election by God of, 67, 68;
as king, 49, 60, 80, 83, 86;
many aspects of, 60–64, 67, 85, 95, 149;
messianic tradition and, 56, 60, 64;
as musician and poet, 74;
narrative imagery and, 81;
as shepherd-warrior, 41, 42, 44, 60, 62, 63–64, 65, 67, 68, 71–72, 72, 78, 81, 86, 87, 102, 104, 106–7, 140;
sling of, 72–73, 73, 81, 236n110;
as son of God, 62–63, 213. See also Psalms of David
(p.291) Davidic descent, 62, 63, 64, 159, 191
David slaying Goliath (Dura-Europos baptistery painting), 20, 22, 28, 41, 49–50, 61–64, 68, 70–74, 72, 75, 85, 86, 140, 149, 150, 197, 202;
interpretations of, 73–74, 82–83;
militaristic indicators, 70–73, 74;
psalms evoking, 66–67. See also Goliath
Davis, Stephen, 153
deacons, female, 53–54
Dead Sea Scrolls, 15, 66, 234nn59, 60, 63
death, 150–53, 205, 209;
origin of, 131. See also funerals
death and resurrection, 3, 20, 24, 45, 55, 87, 89, 96, 97, 131, 136, 142, 192;
in baptism with Christ, 205;
crucifixion and, 185, 198, 200;
Graeco-Roman antiquity and, 120;
initiation and, 42, 120;
myrrophores at empty tomb and, 31, 117–20, 122, 127–28;
Pauline interpretation of baptism as, 119–20, 121, 205, 206;
redeemed body and, 209;
solitaries’ anticipation of, 211;
theory of procession of women representing, 118–21, 122
death mysticism, 55, 120–21, 131–32, 151–52, 198, 206
Decani church (Serbia), Annunciation scene, 174
Decius, emperor of Rome, 22
deities, 6, 7, 9, 14–15, 35, 36;
death and rising of, 120;
festival processions, 124;
mythical unions between, 137;
of water, 75, 165
demon possession, 97
Demonstrations (Aphrahat), 136, 211
devil, 82, 83, 84
Diana, 112
Diatessaron (Tatian), 81, 228n80;
parchment fragment of, 26, 31, 40, 90, 93, 94, 96, 118, 128, 207, 216
Didache, 20, 51, 56, 63, 121, 157, 226n52
Didascalia Apostolorum, 27, 30, 53–54, 57, 64, 81, 97
Dio, Cassius, 81
Dionysiac processions, 38
Dirven, Lucinda, 9, 21–22, 28, 206, 207
disciples, 120;
walking on water and, 86, 87–88, 88, 90, 93
Discovery of Dura-Europos (Hopkins), 14
divine sonship, 52–53, 193, 213
Doctrine of Addai, 225n47
Documents of the Baptismal Liturgy (Johnson, ed.), 24
Dodd, Erica, 141, 172, 181
Domitilla, Catacombs of, 38
domus ecclesiae. See house-church
dove, 100, 180, 186, 212
Drijvers, Hans J. W., 216
drowning baptism, 89
“Dry Salvages” (Eliot), 76
Dura-Europos, 1–2, 143, 218–19;
American and French archaeologists, 12–14;
ancient evidence for names, 223n2;
British soldiers’ discovery of ruins (1920), 11–12;
chemical warfare use, 11;
Christian baptistery (see baptistery); Christian community, 11, 15, 20–22, 26–27, 40, 41, 43–44, 68, 73, 74, 79–81, 83, 207, 216, 226n61;
Christian house-church (see house-church);
Christian identity markers, 40;
continued scholarship on, 28–29;
as crossroads of antiquity, 15;
Diatessaron fragment found at, 207;
diversity of languages and practices, 6–9, 14–15;
excavation final reports, 3, 4, 25, 26, 119;
excavation sites, 1–18;
excavation teams, 1–2, 13, 14;
extensive findings at, 1–2, 14–15, 20;
final destruction of, 10, 11, 14;
founding, location, and history of, 5–6;
as frontier town, 6–7, 22, 80–81;
as Graeco-Semitic civilization, 13, 46;
(p.292) imagined size and significance of, 224n8;
intentional burial and, 5;
Jewish community, 226n61;
Jewish synagogue (see synagogue); largest building, 9–10;
map, plate 2; militarized setting of, 7, 21, 41, 44, 68–69, 78, 80, 85;
Mithraeum, 9, 14, 32, 38, 60, 61, 112;
parchments, 13, 20, 40, 118;
as “Pompeii of Syrian Desert,” 5, 11, 14;
Roman era of, 6–14, 21, 73;
Sasanian siege-camp, 10;
“Wall Street” remains, 11, 15;
western city wall of, 6, 10–11, 68, 224n8;
western vulnerability of, 10
Dux Ripae, Palace of the, 9–10, 79
early Christian art, 30–38, 143, 165, 194–98;
biblical images, 31, 33–34;
characteristics of, 36–37, 100;
classical imagery, 24;
earliest images, 68;
haptic vs. optic viewing of, 39, 113, 230n129;
imagery of Christ’s death, 55;
incorporation motifs, 101, 107;
militaristic imagination and, 68;
prominence of procession portrayals, 37–38, 111–13;
representation of myrrophores, 119;
ritual-centered viewing of, 35–36, 196;
ritual context of, 33–34;
river of Eden, 144–45;
salvation imagery, 87, 88;
shepherd and flock as most familiar theme of, 99–100, 104;
textual analysis and, 194–96
early Christianity:
chastity and, 106, 136;
chi-rho as Christ symbol, 104;
close community bonds and, 22, 42;
conversion basis of, 22, 26, 97;
death and resurrection paradigm, 120–21;
in early third century vs. late fourth century, 47, 55;
eastern vs. western anointing rites, 55;
expansion of, 20–22;
as flock led by Christ, 103–4;
initiation rite variety, 3, 22–30, 41, 42, 45, 56–58, 65, 66, 104–7, 120–21, 140, 202, 206, 211;
instability of textual forms, 31;
locality of liturgical traditions, 23–24;
Marian devotion and, 159, 162;
narrative sources, 212;
nativity/Epiphany date, 56;
only pre-Constantine extant church building, 1, 14–16;
persecution cessation (fourth century), 55;
pilgrimages to Holy Land, 183–90;
precanonical and preconciliar texts, 91;
prominent theologians, 20–21;
regional diversity of, 26–27, 120–21;
Valentinianism and, 20–21, 109, 124, 138–39, 226n53;
wedding and marriage imagery, 129–33. See also Dura-Europos; early Christian art; Syrian Christianity
Easter, 3, 42, 47, 120, 121, 232n33
Eben-Ezer, battle of, 69, 69
Eden. See paradise
Edessa, 20, 225n47
Edwell, Peter, 10
Egeria, 57, 189
Egypt, 7, 20, 26, 53, 58, 62, 77, 153;
Annunciation scenes, 165, 166, 168, 168, 186
Ein Kerem, 186, 187
El-Bagawat fresco, 153
Eleusinian mysteries, 120, 124
Eliezer, 182
Eliot, T. S., 76, 77;
“The Dry Salvages,” 76
Elizabeth (mother of John the Baptist), Mary’s visit to, 186–87
Elliott, Keith, 153
Elsner, Jaś, 34, 35, 36, 37, 124
empowerment motif, 45, 86, 98, 198, 218
(p.293) empty tomb. See death and resurrection; tomb of Jesus
end of time, 108, 125, 126, 209, 211
enlightenment, 58
environmental psychology, 75–77, 78
Ephesians, Epistle to the, 151
Ephesian Tale (Xenophon), 124
Ephesus, 7, 124
Ephrem, 53, 57, 74, 82–83, 90, 95, 105–6, 146, 195, 202–3, 233n30;
baptism as second womb, 192;
Diatessaron commentary, 96;
as early Syrian Christianity source, 26, 29;
Fire and Spirit and, 193–94;
Hymns on Epiphany, 210;
Hymns on Nativity, 107, 161;
Hymns on Paradise, 209, 210;
Hymns on Virginity, 202;
incarnation and, 199;
“light from light” image, 233n39;
polysemic ritual texts and, 197;
on Rebecca and Laban, 158;
robe of glory concept, 207;
on Samaritan Woman, 157;
on virginity of Mary, 153, 191
Epiphanius, 159
Epiphany, 47, 56, 131, 135, 194, 210, 232n33
Epistle of Barnabas, 121
Epistles of Paul. See Pauline epistles; specific epistles
Epistula Apostolorum, 109, 139
eschatology, 125–26, 132, 144. See also death; end of time; salvation
Estrangela (Syriac script), 57
Etchmiadzine Gospels, 172
eternal life, 144, 148, 154, 157, 214
Eucharist, 17, 47, 51, 52, 53, 80, 121, 131, 141;
Holy Spirit and, 193;
Psalm 23 and, 87;
as sacrificial reenactment, 55;
veiled sanctuary and, 147
eulogia, pilgrimage meaning of, 184–85
Euphrates River, 1, 5, 9–10, 12, 13, 21, 41, 68;
Romans and, 75, 77–78, 80–81;
walking on water symbolism and, 91, 93, 213
Euripides, Medea, 122, 123
Eusebius of Caesarea, 63, 103, 108
evangelism, 34, 197
Eve. See Adam and Eve
evil eye, 47
“Exodus chapel” frescoes, 153
exorcism, 47, 55, 95, 97
Ezekiel, 102, 104
faith, 90, 93, 95, 190, 196
feminine Spirit, 192
Ferguson, Everett, 28;
Baptism in the Early Church, 227n73
Fieschi Morgan Staurotheke, underside of lid, 171
Final Judgment. See Last Judgment
Fine, Steven, 15, 225n43
fire, 58, 125;
as Holy Spirit symbol, 193–94, 200. See also illumination
firelight ritual (wedding), 122–35, 137
fish, 100
flasks, 185–86
flowing water. See “living” (flowing) water
forgiveness, Christian ritual of, 22
“Fountain of the Virgin,” 160, 161
France:
Dura-Europos excavations and, 13, 14;
Middle East Mandate, 11–12, 13
Francis, James A., 36, 37, 68
French Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres, 13
funerals, 33–34, 42, 51, 142
Gabriel (angel):
absence in baptistery fresco, 195;
in Annunciation portrayals, 159, 161, 162, 163, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 171, 172, 173, 174, 177, 177, 178, 179, 182, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 191, 194, 196, 199
Galilee, 15, 184, 187
(p.294) Galilee, Sea of (freshwater lake), 91
Garden of Eden. See Adam and Eve; paradise
Genesis, 58
gentiles, 22
Gladzor (Glajor) Gospels, 174, 175
Gnosticism, 91, 109, 138–39
God:
anointed one of, 57, 59, 62–63, 64, 65, 67, 68, 90;
enlistment in army of, 82;
Hebrew Bible metaphors for, 108;
Marcionite duality of, 206, 207. See also divine sonship; Holy Spirit; Jesus Christ
gods. See deities
Golgotha, 151, 184
Goliath: images of, 31, 74, 78;
as personification of passions, 82–83;
tomb of, 185. See also David slaying Goliath
Goodenough, E. R., 15
Good Shepherd, 31, 101, 102, 103–4, 105, 108, 205, 206, 209
good works, oil symbolizing, 127, 144
Gospel of James. See Protevangelium of James
Gospel of Philip, 21, 28, 30, 131;
anointing and, 57, 137;
bridal chamber as dominant symbol of, 138, 199–200;
early Mariology of, 153;
primal androgyne myth and, 208;
sacramental system and, 55–56;
on spiritual marriage, 27, 137–38
Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew, 160–61
Gospel of Thomas, 26, 208, 211
Gospel of Truth, 26
Gospels, 89, 118, 120, 126, 196, 207, 228n80;
Annunciation account, 162, 182;
canonical narratives of, 31, 95;
harmonization of (see Diatessaron);
marriage motifs, 211. See also specific gospels
Grabar, André, 146
grace, 149, 213
Graeco-Roman world, 7, 13, 78;
anointing and, 50;
classical imagery and, 35, 100, 122;
death and resurrection and, 120;
deities of, 6, 9, 15, 112;
Hellenistic era, 5–6, 139–40;
marriage and, 123, 124;
processions and, 38, 112, 124–25;
virginity and, 132–33, 139;
visuality of, 35–36. See also Roman Empire
graffiti, Dura-Europos:
figural, 78–80, 79, 80, 113, 207;
personal names, 22, 30, 40, 46–47, 68, 114, 139
graffiti, pilgrim, 188
Greek language, 6, 8, 9, 46, 51, 53, 123
Greek Orthodox Church, 120
Grégoire, Henri, 39–40
Gregory of Nazianzus, “On Holy Baptism,” 58, 82, 134–35
Gregory of Nyssa, 184, 208
Gregory the Great, Pope, 155
Griffith, Sidney, 106, 136, 210–11
Gundaphorus, King, 51–53, 104–5, 231n15
Gundeshapur, Christianity brought to, 226n60
Hahn, Cynthia, 190
Hammath Tiberias, ancient synagogue of, 15
haptic function, 147;
optic distinction, 39, 113, 230n129
Harvey, Susan Ashbrook, 96, 97, 208–9, 215
healing, 24, 30, 45, 95–99, 189, 208, 218;
absolution of sin and, 97;
apostles and bishops and, 97;
Christ the physician and, 41–42, 86, 96–99;
divine vs. superstitio, 95;
salvation as, 198;
of soul, 97, 98
healing of paralytic (Dura-Europos baptistery painting), 31, 39, 44, 86, (p.295) 87, 93–99, 94, 213, plate 5; purpose of, 98–99
heaven, entry into, 127
Hebrew Bible, 49, 60, 207;
betrothal at well accounts, 158, 182, 190, 195, 197;
creation account, 207, 208;
Masoretic Text, 66;
metaphors for God, 108;
military figures and, 70;
shepherds and, 102, 104. See also Adam and Eve; David; David slaying Goliath; Psalms of David; specific psalms
Hebrew language, 6, 51;
alphabet, 208;
liturgical parchment discovery, 20
Helena (mother of Constantine), 184
Hellenistic era, 5–6, 139–40
Hera (neophyte), 40, 114, 140, 211, 218
Heraclius, Byzantine emperor, 236n110
hermeneutics, 197
Hermes (sheep-bearer), 100, 121
Herod, 186
Hesychius of Jerusalem, 103
Heyn, Maura, 113
Hippolytus, David and Goliath sermon, 73–74
History of Art (Pijoan), 128
Holy Land, 184–89, 190. See also Jerusalem
Holy of Holies, 200
“holy rider” image, 80
Holy Spirit, 24, 81, 103, 105, 121, 131, 212, 216;
anointing by, 55, 127, 149, 155, 192;
descent and embodiment in Mary’s womb of, 56, 153–54, 155–56, 193, 194;
fire as manifestation of, 193–94, 200;
martyrdom and, 122;
oil identified with, 41, 57, 58, 127, 192;
recognition of, 155;
Syriac liturgical rites and, 193. See also Annunciation; incarnation
Homer, 75;
Odyssey, 60
homilies, 31, 32
Homilies on Genesis (Origen), 190–91
Homilies on the Virgin (James of Kokkinobaphos), 177, 178
Hopkins, Clark, 1–2, 3, 14, 15, 86, 111, 203, 207;
The Discovery of Dura-Europos, 14
Hopkins, Susan, 14, 225n38
house-church (Dura-Europos), 11, 14, 15–20, 203, 218–19;
apotropaic magic bowl, 46–47;
conversion from original house, 48, 49;
excavation final report (1967) on, 3, 4, 25, 26, 119;
floor plan, 17;
graffiti, 22, 30, 40, 46, 78–80, 79, 80, 207;
hypothetical reconstruction with congregants, 18;
isometric, 18, 19, 20;
microhistory/interpretation of, 25;
original house, 48, 49;
outside, 16;
questions about, 203;
ritual-centered visuality and, 34–35, 38, 39;
Roman military quarters and, 21;
sources and, 29–30;
synagogue relationship with, 20;
uniqueness of, 2, 15–16;
updated scholarship on, 44;
wedding ring found in, 137;
as world’s oldest church, 22. See also baptistery
“hovering” of the Spirit, 58
Hunt, E. D., 184
hymns, 30, 194, 212, 215
Hymns on Epiphany (Ephrem), 210
Hymns on Nativity (Ephrem), 107, 161
Hymns on Paradise (Ephrem), 209, 210
Hymns on Virginity (Ephrem), 202
Iarhibol, 9
Iconography of Christian Art (Schiller), 199
iconostasis, 141, 142
Ignatius of Antioch, 20, 56, 96, 121, 217
illiteracy, 46
illness. See healing
illuminated manuscripts, 30, 119, 145;
Annunciation scene, 165, 171, 176–77, 180, 181;
Codex Rossanensis, 143–46;
Rebecca at well scene, 182
(p.296) illumination, 30, 45, 56, 57, 131, 143–48, 172–73, 182;
baptism as, 58, 134, 218;
as enlightenment, 58;
incarnation and, 43, 161, 194, 199, 200, 202;
initiation oil as source of, 50, 53, 58, 90, 140;
as motif of marriage, 130;
salvation as, 198, 200. See also oil lamps; torches
Image and Text in Graeco-Roman Antiquity (Squire), 196
Images of Baptism (Johnson), 24
imagined marriage, 138
immortality, 125
imperial ceremony, 38–39
incarnation, 45, 150, 153–54, 155–56, 191, 192, 193–94;
baptism compared with, 56, 58, 149, 154, 155, 193, 212;
conception narrative and, 216;
doubling as Mary’s baptism, 193;
as drop of milk, 215–16;
emphasis on, 198–201;
illumination and, 43, 161, 194, 197, 199, 200, 202;
lines depicting, 162, 163, 172, 180–81, 182, 193;
“living water” and, 214;
restoration of primordial innocence by, 208;
as salvation, 198, 200, 201, 214;
as sexless, 208;
star signifying spark in body of, 181–82, 193, 194, 199, 200;
Syrian robe of glory motif and, 207, 209
incorporation motifs (early Christian art), 101, 107
initiation, 3, 4, 22–30, 32, 34, 36, 41, 83–85, 97, 120–21, 128, 202;
anointing rite, 48, 50–63, 105, 155, 192, 213;
birth imagery for, 55, 209–10;
bridal imagery for, 28, 109, 137, 138, 139, 147, 149–50, 190;
calendrical diversity of, 47;
celibate subgroup, 210;
communal aspect of, 42;
death and resurrection motif, 42, 120;
death mysticism and, 55, 120;
Dura-Europos and, 40–47, 88, 90, 110, 111, 114, 149–50, 210–12;
“dying with Christ” through ritual of, 120;
early Christian dominant symbols of, 218;
evolution of rite, 57;
feminine Spirit and, 192;
healing and, 42, 99;
Holy Spirit and, 155–56, 192, 193, 216;
as illumination, 50, 53, 58, 90, 140;
incorporation symbols, 101, 107;
locality and, 22–24 (see also Syrian Christianity); marriage metaphor for, 109, 133–35, 139, 151;
military motif for, 82, 83, 137, 233n44;
neophytes and, 66, 104, 139, 140, 190, 230n132;
Odes of Solomon and, 43;
paradise restored and, 43, 203, 209;
Pauline interpretation of, 55, 131–32, 208;
pilgrimage compared with, 189–90;
processions, 40, 42, 47, 211;
Psalms evoking, 65–66, 67, 81, 87, 102–4, 109;
ritual liquids for, 139–40;
ritual logic of, 58;
as salvation, 198–201;
seal (mark) of, 58, 59, 86–87, 101, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 190;
sourcebook of ancient texts on, 24;
as spiritual marriage, 133–40, 141;
spiritual pregnancy and, 43;
symbols of, 25, 40, 41, 44, 59, 99, 109–10, 211;
themes of, 213;
third-century approved dates for, 47;
torches and, 124;
types of, 24;
updating of former consensus about, 45. See also baptism
innocence, 208
inscriptions, 1, 9, 46–47, 77, 103, 230nn130–31
Iraq, 13
Irenaeus of Lyons, 21, 121, 198
Isaac, 158, 182, 190
Isaiah, 57
Isidore of Charax, 223n2
Isis mysteries, 120, 124
Israelites, 67, 78, 83, 92;
anointing by, 49, 50, 51, 54, 63, 86
(p.297) Isseos the neophyte, 40–41, 42, 43, 47, 86, 99, 114, 140, 211, 218;
anointing of, 156;
as imagined female bride, 138–39;
probationary period, 46
ivory book cover, Annunciation scene, 165, 172, 198–200
ivory pyxis, Annunciation scene, 173
Jacob, 156, 158, 182, 190, 191
Jacob of Serugh, 30, 98, 191
James, 93, 120. See also Protevangelium of James
James, Simon, 10, 11, 226n58
James of Kokkinobaphos, Homilies on the Virgin, 177, 178
jars of oil, 47, 48
Jastrzębowska, Elżbieta, 164
Jefferson, Lee, 95;
Christ the Miracle Worker in Early Christian Art, 96
Jensen, Robin, 24–25, 28, 32–33, 34, 120;
Baptismal Imagery in Early Christianity, 24, 203;
Living Water, 24;
on shepherd and flock imagery, 99, 101;
Understanding Early Christian Art, 24
Jerash (Gerasa) excavations, 25, 38
Jerome, 139
Jerusalem, 134, 135, 174;
baptism in, 47;
Constantine refounding of, 184;
healing of paralytic in, 93;
pilgrimage to, 184, 185, 186, 198;
procession of initiates, 47;
procession of virgins to temple of, 153
Jesse, 63
Jesus Christ, 1, 20, 37, 88, 90, 93, 95, 111, 126, 140, 141, 184, 203;
anointing of, 55, 57, 62, 83, 90, 149;
baptism in name of, 59, 86–87, 103, 120, 151, 205;
baptism of, 55, 56, 58, 67, 120, 131, 149, 155, 169, 194, 209–10;
baptisms by, 157;
battle with “evil one,” 83–84;
birth of (see nativity); chi-rho as early Christian sign of, 104;
“daughter and bride” of, 151;
Davidic descent of, 62, 63, 64;
death of (see death and resurrection); dedicatory inscriptions to, 30;
diverse narratives about, 31;
divine and human natures of, 174;
Dura-Europos baptistery depictions of, 20, 41, 44, 86, 87–93, 107–10, 115, 202, 213;
empty tomb of, 2–3, 31, 42, 44, 111, 117, 118–22;
end of time and, 125;
as Good Shepherd, 41, 42, 44, 86, 87, 100, 101, 102, 103–4, 105, 108, 205, 206;
grace of, 149;
as healer/physician, 41–42, 86, 93–99;
incarnation of, 56, 58, 153–54, 155–56, 191, 200, 216;
as leader and model, 93;
“living water” dialogue, 156–57, 213;
marriage imagery and, 28, 108, 126, 127, 128–30, 133, 134, 136, 138, 139, 151, 197, 204, 215;
martyrdom as “dying” with, 121;
messianic tradition and, 55, 56, 62, 64;
military metaphor for, 83–84;
miracles of, 24, 41–42, 44, 45, 86, 87–93, 213;
mother of (see Mary); myrrophore procession to tomb of, 2–3, 43, 44, 118–20, 122, 127–28, 150, 154;
New Testament metaphors for, 108;
parables of (see parables); with Peter on water (see walking on water); Samaritan Woman and, 158, 177, 182, 183, 190, 197, 213;
seal of, 25, 41, 58, 59, 86–87, 109;
second coming of, 28, 127;
Sermon on the Mount, 127;
solitaries joined with, 210–11;
as Son of David, 62;
as Son of God, 193, 213;
spiritual marriage with, 129, 130–31, 132, 133, 138;
water-related miracles of, 41–42, 44, 86, 87–94, 95, 213;
wedding at Cana, 188;
Wise and Foolish Virgins and, 42, 109, 125–26, 143
Jethro, 102
(p.298) Jewish community, 226n61
Jews. See Israelites; Judaism;
synagogue
Joachim (father of Mary), 152, 159, 187
John, 57, 120, 192
John, Gospel of, 55, 88, 93, 94, 95, 118, 195, 216;
Good Shepherd text, 31, 101, 102, 206, 209;
“living water” and, 31–32, 191;
rebirth and, 192;
Samaritan Woman at Well and, 156, 158, 190
John Chrysostom. See Chrysostom, John
Johnson, Maxwell, 23–24, 54, 55, 56, 120;
Documents of the Baptismal Liturgy (ed.), 24;
Images of Baptism, 24;
The Rites of Christian Initiation, 23
John the Baptist, 130, 141, 156, 186–87, 210
Jonah, imagery of, 34
Jones, Simon, 192, 209
Jordan, 25
Jordan River, 78, 165, 194, 209;
baptism of Christ in, 55, 56, 58, 194, 209–10
Jordan River valley, 93
Judaism, 26, 91, 207, 226n52;
anointing and, 50, 62, 63. See also synagogue
Judea, 6, 15, 184
Julian the Apostate, emperor of Rome, 74
Julius Terentius frieze, 7–8, 8, 13, 38, 113
Jupiter Dolichenus, 60
Justin Martyr, 51, 121
Kilpatrick, George D., 226n61
King James Bible, 129
kings:
anointing of, 41, 49, 50, 51–53, 54, 82, 83;
ritual symbols of, 65
kissing ritual (wedding), 137
Korol, Dieter, 28, 70–73, 74, 78, 89
Kraeling, Carl:
academic career of, 25–26;
Adam and Eve inset sketch and, 205, 206;
artistic interpretation method of, 27–28, 195;
David and Goliath image and, 61, 62;
descriptive skills of, 26;
Diatessaron fragment publication by, 26;
on Dura Christians, 21–22;
Dura-Europos archaeological report (1967) and, 25, 26;
female figure identification by, 28;
house-church figural graffiti and, 79;
potential extensions of research of, 27–28;
procession of women interpretation and, 115, 117, 118, 119, 128, 140, 146;
shepherd and sheep painting and, 99, 100, 101;
sources and, 29–30;
Walking on Water tracing and, 89, 90;
Wise and Foolish Virgins Parable and, 134;
woman at a well interpretation and, 156, 158, 180, 181
Laban, 158
lactation, 215–16
Lamb of God, 108, 109
lampade prima (“at the first torch”), 123
lamps. See oil lamps; torches
Lares compitales (Augustan Rome), 15
Lassus, Jean, 21
Last Judgment, 105, 126–27, 141, 144
Latin language, 6, 8, 58, 104;
word for torch, 123
Lattke, Michael, 91, 92–93
laying on of hands, 97
Leachman, Gerard, 12
Letter to the Armenians (Macarius), 47, 56, 147
Levine, Lee I., 225n43
Leyerle, Blake, 188–89
Life of the Virgin (Maximus the Confessor), 161
light. See illumination
“light from light” image, 233n39
liturgy, 32, 38, 113;
histories of, 27, 28, 30, 120–21, 128;
locality and, 23–24;
processional activity and, 112;
Syrian early Christian diversity of, 55–56;
visual exegesis and, 33–34, 36–37
(p.299) Liturgy of Addai and Mari, 225n47
“living” (flowing) water, 24, 31–32, 156–57, 158, 174, 191, 213, 217–18
Living Water (Jensen), 24
locus sanctus cycles, 185–86
Lord’s Supper. See Eucharist
lost sheep parable, 87, 102
loutrophoros, 139–40
Lucian of Samosata, 20, 35, 37
Lucius Verus, emperor of Rome, 6
Lucullus, 77
Luke, Gospel of, 64, 102, 129, 186, 206, 234n65;
Annunciation story, 159, 160, 216
Lutheranism, 196
Lutheran Theological Seminary, 25
Lyons, 21
Macarius, bishop of Jerusalem, 47;
Letter to the Armenians, 47, 56, 147
Maccabees, 67
MacCormack, Sabine, 37–39
Macedonia, 5
Magi (three kings), 111, 194, 199
magic, 186
male celibates, 106
male virgins, 132, 134, 140
Mani, 106
Manicheans, 109;
Psalm-Book, 109–10
Mann, J. C., 76, 77
Marcellinus, 66
Marcion, 206–7
Marian apocrypha, 159–60
Mariology, 153, 162, 215–16
mark. See seal
Mark, Gospel of, 88, 89;
Codex Rossanensis containing, 143
Mar Musa al-Habashi church paintings (Syria), 141, 142, 143, 148;
Annunciation scene, 172, 180, 181
marriage: anointing and, 41, 57, 59, 65, 122, 137;
betrothals at wells accounts and, 158, 182, 190, 195, 197;
in birth-to-death progression, 151, 152, 153;
to Christ, 130, 136, 138, 139;
commitment of, 211;
fire ritual connection with, 125;
illumination accompanying, 130;
immortality and, 125;
incarnation and, 154;
as initiation, 133–35, 139, 151;
oil and, 51, 122;
paradise imagery and, 215;
ritual signifiers for, 65, 122, 123, 124, 137, 138, 139;
royal, 148;
as salvation symbol, 65, 108, 129, 198, 207–8;
sexual vs. spiritual, 138 (see also spiritual marriage); shepherding juxtaposed with, 108, 109;
Syrian early Christian motifs of, 30, 42, 45, 130, 131–32, 134–36, 138, 192, 207–8, 210;
torches signifying, 122–23, 124, 125, 134, 135, 137;
veils signifying, 124;
virginal, 127, 132, 136, 140, 210;
marriage bath, 140
marriage ring, 137, 168, 169, 186
Martini, Simone, Annunciation altarpiece, 169, 170, 182
martyrdom, 55, 121
Mary: Armenian church metaphors for, 174;
birth of Jesus and, 153–54, 201, 216;
consecration to temple of, 159, 160;
as counteracting curse of Eve, 132, 153, 193, 211;
Davidic descent of, 159, 191;
earliest securely dateable portrait of, 45;
incarnation in womb of, 56, 58, 153–54, 181–82, 191, 193, 194, 199, 209, 216;
meeting with Elizabeth, 186–87;
paradox of, 199;
parents of, 152, 158–59, 187;
pilgrimages and, 185, 189;
spark of illumination and, 202;
veneration of (p.300) (see Mariology);
virginal purity of, 25, 107, 132, 152–53, 160, 191, 193, 194, 199, 210, 211;
Virgin and Child depictions of, 161, 164;
water symbols for, 191;
Mary Magdalene, 118, 122
“Mary silk” textile (Egypt), 165
Masoretic Text, 66
Mathews, Thomas F., 37, 112, 174
Matthew, Gospel of, 88, 89, 90, 93, 102;
Codex Rossanensis and, 143;
Wise and Foolish Virgins Parable, 125–29, 134, 196, 215
Maximian, chair (throne) of (Annunciation depiction), 171–72, 183
Maximus the Confessor, 161;
Life of the Virgin, 161
McDonnell, Kilian, 121
medallions, 166, 183
Medea (Euripides), 122, 123
Menander, 125
meshiach (anointed one), 60
Mesnil du Buisson, Robert du, 14
Mesopotamia, 6, 46, 158, 206, 207;
anointing and, 50
Messiah, Abdul, 1
messiah (anointed one), 46, 51, 54, 55, 56, 62, 64, 155, 190
messianic banquet, 110
metal flasks, 185–86
meta-narratives, 196
Methodius, Symposium of, 28
Metropolitan Museum of Art, Cloisters Collection, 162
Middle East mandates (post–World War I), 11–13
Midyat, Syro-Orthodox Diocese, Annunciation scene, 173, 173
Milan Cathedral, 166, 199
military: anointing of soldiers, 41, 57, 59, 84, 85;
as Christian progress metaphor, 81–82;
David the Warrior and, 41, 42, 44, 60, 63–64, 65, 67, 68, 71–72, 72, 78, 81, 106–7, 140;
Dura synagogue art and, 69, 69, 70, 70, 71;
early Christian art and, 68–69;
female “soldiers of Christ” and, 140;
incorporation motif and, 100, 107;
initiation motif and, 82, 83, 137, 233n44;
as metaphor, 81–82, 83, 84, 108, 139, 149, 190, 218;
mounted archers/armed lancers, 78–79, 79, 80;
shepherd’s commitment compared with, 108;
slingers, 71–73, 73, 81, 235n81;
symbols of rituals, 65, 108, 137, 139. See also Roman army
milk, 215–16
miracles of Jesus, 24, 41–42, 44, 45, 86, 87–93, 213
Mississippi River, 76, 77
Mithraeum, 9, 14, 32, 38, 60, 61, 112, 230n132
Mithras, slaying of bull by, 9, 60, 61
Monza token (Italy), 185, 186, 187
mortality. See death
mosaics, 38, 112, 166, 177, 183
Moses, 63, 102, 104, 149, 158, 191;
at well of Be’er, 69, 70, 146, 190
Moses the Ethiopian, monastery of, 141
Moss, Candida, 121
mother, Holy Spirit as, 192
Mount Carmel, 189
Mount of Olives, 184
Murphy, M. C., 12
Murray, Robert, 96, 147;
Symbols of Church and Kingdom, 192
Muslim conquests, 184
Myers, Susan, 53
Mygdonia, 130–31
(p.301) myrrophores, 117–20, 122, 205;
procession in early morning, 127–28;
variant descriptions of, 31, 118–19
mystery cults, 120, 124
Mystery of Oil, 84
mystical marriage. See spiritual marriage
Na‘aran, ancient synagogue art, 15
Nag Hammadi codices, 26, 27, 131
Narsai, 57, 137
Nathan, 102
nativity, 160, 164, 182, 186, 191, 198–99, 216, 232n33;
depictions of, 165;
Epiphany and, 47, 56;
hymns, 107, 161, 215;
Magi (three kings) and, 111, 194, 199;
pilgrim souvenirs picturing, 185;
as popular Christian holiday, 200–201
“Nativity of Mary.” See Protevangelium of James
“Nativity of the Blessed Mary and the Infancy of the Savior” (Pseudo-Matthew), 160
nature, 86, 89, 90, 95
Nazareth, ancient wellspring, 189
Nelson, Robert S., 34, 36, 37
neophytes, 66, 104, 139, 140, 190, 230n132. See also initiation; Isseos the neophyte
“new age” spirituality, 58
New Testament, 31, 60, 64, 88–89, 103, 125;
empty tomb narrative, 119;
marriage metaphors, 149;
metaphors for Christ, 108;
spiritual marriage, 129. See also Gospels
New York University, 28
Nicene Christology, 233n39
Nile River, 77
Noah, 33–34;
“jack-in-the-box” style of depicting, 33
noncanonical texts, 21, 26, 29, 30, 32, 91;
anointing and, 51–53;
“nursing on divine milk” metaphor, 215
Odes of Solomon, 26, 29, 43, 91–93, 192, 212–18
Odyssey (Homer), 60
oil, 22, 30, 33, 49, 140;
chrism, 57, 131;
clay jar container, 40–41, 47, 48, 139;
clear container, 122, 144;
empowerment over water of, 90;
fire-water-Spirit-birth connection, 58;
Holy Spirit identified with, 41, 57, 58, 127, 192;
as invisible armor, 85;
many uses of, 50–51, 52, 58;
Mystery of, 84;
sealing with, 139;
symbolism of, 51, 127, 144, 202, 204;
Wise and Foolish Virgins Parable and, 125–29, 135, 144. See also anointing; initiation; torches
oil lamps, 50, 53, 58, 128, 129, 185, 204
Old Testament. See Hebrew Bible
“O Little Town of Bethlehem” (Brooks), 201
Olympic Games, 84
“On Holy Baptism” (Gregory of Nazianzus), 58, 82, 134–35
“On Perfection” (Tatian), 81–82
optic-haptic distinction, 39, 113, 147, 230n129
Oriental Forerunners of Byzantine Painting (Breasted), 27
Origen of Alexandria, 55, 103, 121;
Homilies on Genesis, 190–91
Orodes II of Parthia, silver tetradrachm of, 235n78
Orontes River, 77
Orpheus, 24
Orthodox Holy Week, 28
Our Lady of the Angels Catholic Cathedral (Los Angeles), 37, 112
Oxyrhynchus papyri, 96
(p.302) Pacorus I, crown prince of Parthia, 81
Pagels, Elaine, 137–38
Pagoulatos, Gerasimos P., Tracing the Bridegroom at Dura, 28–29
Palace of the Dux Ripae, 9–10, 79
Palbry, Geri, 164
Palestine, 29, 134, 141, 143;
Annunciation portrayals, 165, 166, 185;
Christian initiation rites, 47, 55–58, 104–5. See also Holy Land
Palmyrene Gate, 10, 14
Palmyrene language, 6, 9
parables, 98, 109, 136;
of sheep, 87, 101, 102, 104, 105;
paradise, 43, 91, 203, 206–9, 214–17;
“neighborhood” of, 209;
restoration of, 145, 153, 211, 216–17;
reunion of Adam and Eve in, 138, 210;
ritual return to, 206, 207–8;
rivers and, 144–45, 216–17;
salvation planted in, 216–17;
wedding imagery for, 215
paralytic. See healing of paralytic
Parthians, 5–6, 10, 77, 81;
cavalry, 78, 79, 80
“pastor” (Latin term for shepherd), 104
Patrology (Quasten), 128
Paul:
baptism metaphors, 55, 89, 119–20;
“betrothed” to Christ and, 137;
celibacy and, 136;
creation account, 208;
indeterminate sexuality and, 133;
initiation metaphors, 55, 131–32;
“pure virgin” category, 136;
sacrificial atonement doctrine, 205;
spiritual marriage and, 138, 139
Pauline epistles, 55, 120, 121, 151–52, 205, 206
Paul of Samosata, 20
Paulus, 22, 68
Pausanias, 35
Pearson, Henry, 1, 2, 14, 15, 16;
The Discovery of Dura-Europos, 14
Pera Chorio (Cyprus), Annunciation at the Well image, 173–74
Persephone’s return, vase paintings of, 124
Persian deities, 6, 14–15
Persian Empire, 71–74, 77–81, 236n110
Persian language, 6
Peter, 111, 115;
walking on water with Jesus, 41, 86, 87, 88, 88, 89–90, 91, 93, 95, 97, 98–99, 202–3
Peter the Deacon, 184, 189
Philip. See Gospel of Philip
Philistines, 63, 64
Philoxenos of Mabbug, 98, 192
Phraates III, king of Parthia, 77
physician, Jesus as, 41–42, 86, 96–99
“Piacenza pilgrim,” 184, 187, 188–89
Pierce, Mark, 212
Pignatta sarcophagus (Ravenna), 166
Pijoan, Joseph, History of Art, 128
pilgrimage, 183–90, 198
pilgrim souvenir tokens, 30, 32, 33, 35, 114, 185–89, 190;
Annunciation scene, 165, 166, 167, 168–69, 185, 188;
locus sanctus cycle, 185–86;
resurrection objects, 119
Pillet, Maurice, 14
Pistis Sophia, 152
Plato, 208
Plutarch, 124
Pollard, Nigel, 226n58, 234–35n66
polysemic ritual symbols, 195–98
polytheism, 36
Pompeii excavations, 5, 11, 14
Pompey, 77, 78
postmodern epistemology, 151, 196–97
pregnancy, 151, 187, 189, 192, 194, 216;
spiritual, 43
priests, anointing of, 51, 54
(p.303) primal androgyne myth, 208
printing press, 196
Priscilla, catacomb of, 164
Procatechesis (Cyril of Jerusalem), 134, 147
processional visuality, 37–39, 111–14, 153, 211;
of virgins to temple, 152–54, 172. See also wedding procession
procession of women (Dura-Europos baptistery painting): 2–4, 20, 29, 39, 41, 45, 75, 108, 110, 111–54, 197, 202, 204, 206, plates 1, 7;
current title (“Procession of Women”), 150;
description of, 2–3, 114–17, 144;
as dominant polysemic symbol in baptistery, 111, 195;
door bottom, 115, 116, 117, 128, 147, 148;
first discovery of, 2–3;
haptic invitational function of, 147;
height of figures, 115;
iconographic comparisons of, 141;
identification debate, 28, 111, 117–18, 128–29, 146, 150, 154;
identified as consecrated virgins approaching temple, 152–54, 210, 211;
identified as Parable of Wise and Foolish Virgins, 42, 119, 127–29, 135, 140–41, 144, 146, 147, 150;
identified as wedding procession, 42, 44, 65, 122–25, 140, 150, 154, 215;
identified as women approaching tomb of Christ, 2–3, 31, 42, 44, 111, 117, 118–21, 122, 127–28, 140, 146, 147, 150, 154;
illumination of Codex Rossanensis and, 143–48;
number of women, 118, 128, 143;
open door, 128;
pairs of feet, 114, 115;
right-to-left direction of, 40;
scene sequence reconstruction, 114;
scholarly importance of, 111–12;
as torch-bearing, 2, 3–4, 75, 111, 115, 116, 117, 117, 118, 119, 122, 128, 146, 200, 215;
white partial structure, 2, 3–4, 111, 115, 117, 117, 118, 128, 146, 200, 215;
white veils and garments of, 4, 111, 115, 122, 127, 128
Proclus, 22, 30, 40, 68
Prometheus, 125
property, branding (sealing) of, 59, 104, 105, 109
Protestantism, 120, 196
Protevangelium of James, 152, 153, 158–60, 161, 189, 195, 199;
alternate titles, 159;
on Elizabeth and infant John, 186–87
Prudentius, 104
Psalm 23, 42, 100;
Christian interpretation of, 65–66, 87, 102–4, 105, 108, 109, 209, 213
Psalm 45, 64, 65, 148–50, 151, 155
Psalm 89, 62–63, 64
Psalm 151, 66–67, 83, 234n59
Psalms of David, 41, 44, 62–66, 68, 81, 83, 106, 211
Psalms of Solomon, 91
Pseudo-Cyprian, 83
Purim panel (Dura-Europos synagogue), 38, 112
Quasten, Johannes, 58–59, 65–66, 102–3, 104;
Patrology, 128
Rabbula Gospels, 182
Rachel at well, 158, 182
Rajak, Tessa, 20
Ravenna, 37, 166, 183;
baptistery, 103, 112, 158, 183
Rebecca at well, 158, 181, 182, 195, 197
rebirth, 22, 192, 213. See also baptism
Red Sea, 92
Reformation, 196
refreshment motif, 45, 198
Renaissance, 35, 162
repentance, 157, 207
resurrection. See death and resurrection
(p.304) Revelation, book of, 108
Revelation of James. See Protevangelium of James
Rhine River, 75, 76, 77
Richter-Siebels, Ilse, 176, 185
Rites of Christian Initiation (Johnson), 23
ritual, 22–25, 29, 30, 44, 56;
anointing as important element of, 51, 56–57;
art interpretation and, 34–38;
and baptistery context, 32, 45, 80–81, 111;
as context for art, 33–36, 108–9, 113, 196;
explications of, 24–25, 27;
influence of Wise and Foolish Virgins Parable on, 134;
polysemic symbols of, 195–98;
primacy of place and, 23–24;
sealing unto Lord and, 190;
shepherd and flock symbol of, 25, 99, 104–10;
torches and, 124, 134;
and woman at well context, 195–96, 197. See also baptism; Eucharist; initiation
ritual-context visuality, 33–40, 195–98;
processional, 112
rivers: anthropomorphic deities of, 165;
paradise images and, 144–45, 216–17;
symbolic power of, 75–77, 98, 213;
walking on water image and, 91, 92. See also Euphrates River; Jordan River
robe of glory, 207, 209
Roman army, 71–73, 77, 226n58, 234–35n66;
Christian soldiers in, 21–22, 26, 226n60;
Dura-Europos quartering of, 7, 8, 9, 14, 21–22, 44, 68, 78;
slingers in, 72–73, 73, 74
Roman catacombs, 43
Roman Catholic Church, art of, 113
Roman deities, 15
Roman Empire:
anointing and, 50;
Caesar’s Rubicon crossing and, 77, 78;
Christian persecution and, 22;
David and Goliath symbolism and, 75;
Dura-Europos frontier and, 6–14, 21, 73;
illiteracy and, 46;
internal problems of, 10;
Mithraic cult and, 32;
Persian threat to, 71–72, 73, 74, 77–78, 80–81, 236n110;
procession depictions, 38, 112;
rivers as boundaries of, 75, 76, 77, 78;
Sasanids and, 10–11;
spiritual marriage and, 136. See also Graeco-Roman world; Roman army
Romans, Epistle to the, 55, 120, 121, 205, 206
Rossano Gospels. See Codex Purpureus Rossanensis
Rostovtzeff, Michael, 1–2, 5, 14, 27, 78, 79
royal wedding, 148
Rubicon, Caesar’s crossing of, 77, 78
Rufinus, 58
running water. See “living” (flowing) water
sacraments, 24, 27, 37;
anointing oil and, 52–53, 57–58. See also specific sacraments
sacrifice, 7–8, 8, 55, 205
St. Apollinaris Church (Classe), 37
St. Apollinaris Church (“Nuovo,” Ravenna), 37;
mosaics, 183
St. Gabriel’s Orthodox Church (Nazareth), 189
St. Lupicin Gospels, 172, 182
St. Peter’s Basilica, baptistery of (Rome), 103
saints:
depictions of, 112;
pilgrimage sites, 186
salvation, 12, 34, 39, 88–89, 98, 103, 202;
through birth mysticism, 198;
as bridal tent, 215;
through cross, 200;
death and resurrection and, 120;
Dura house-church and, 43, 198–201;
Dura synagogue and, 30;
end of time and, 125;
incarnation as, 198, 200, 201, 214;
initiation and, 198–201;
as “living” (p.305) water, 213, 217–18;
marriage symbolizing, 65, 108, 129, 198, 207–8;
as new creation in paradise, 216–17;
from sin, 205, 206;
virginity of Mary and, 153, 210
Samaritan Woman, 43, 44–45, 90, 156, 181–83, 183, 190, 191;
baptism imagery and, 157–58, 195;
identification as woman at a well, 43, 44–45;
Jesus and, 158, 177, 182, 183, 190, 197, 213;
“living” water and, 213;
shift in symbolic view of, 207;
as virgin, 197
Samosata, 20
Samuel, 49, 50, 63, 67, 82, 83
Sancta Sanctorum, Vatican, 172
San Giovanni in Fonte (Naples), 158, 182–83, 183
San Marco, Museo di (Venice), Annunciation scene, 177, 179
San Remo, Treaty of (1920), 13
Santa Maria Antiqua (Rome), wall painting, 172
Santa Maria Maggiore (Rome), Annunciation mosaic, 166, 167
sarcophagus, 3, 96, 117, 118, 128;
Annunciation scenes, 165, 166;
white structure in Dura procession of women painting seen as, 146
Sasanid Empire, 226n61;
cavalry, 78, 79, 79, 80;
chemical warfare and, 11;
as Dura-Europos threat, 10–11, 14, 68
Satan. See devil
Saul, 64, 149
Schiller, Gertrud, Iconography of Christian Art, 199
seal: of Christ, 25, 41, 58, 59, 86–87, 109;
of initiation, 58, 59, 86–87, 101, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 190;
with oil, 139;
of pilgrimage, 190;
proprietary function of, 59, 104, 105, 109;
of shepherd, 41, 59, 103, 104, 105, 109, 190, 213;
sphragis, 59, 190
Search for the Origins of Christian Worship (Bradshaw), 23
second coming, 28, 127
Second Sophistic, 37
Seleucus I, Seleucid dynasty founding, 5
Semitic languages, 5, 40;
right-to-left directionality of, 93. See also Aramaic language; Hebrew language
Sepphoris, 187, 189;
ancient synagogue, 15
Septuagint, 60, 91
Sermon on the Mount, 127
serpent, 204, 204, 205
Serra, Dominic, 28, 83, 128, 158
Service des Antiquités of Syria and Lebanon, 2
Severus of Antioch, 103, 105
sexual continence. See celibacy
sexuality, 132–33, 138, 208–9
Seyrig, Henri, 2–3, 111, 119
Shapur I, Sasanid ruler, 10, 228n60
Sheol, 192
shepherd and flock (Dura-Europos baptistery painting): 20, 24, 34, 86–87, 99–110, 101, 112, plate 6; Adam and Eve small inset painting, 100, 101, 109, 203–4, 209;
altered perception of, 209;
as baptistery central image, 31, 42, 87, 99–110, 101, 112, 206, 213;
meaning of, 101–10, 209;
as ritual symbol, 25, 99, 104–10
shepherd with flock:
biblical analogies, 101–2;
as boundaries metaphor, 105, 106, 109;
as frequent early Christian art theme, 99–100, 104;
David portrayed as, 41, 42, 44, 60, 62, 63–64, 67, 68, 86;
Gospel of John and, 31, 101–2, 206, 209;
as metaphor of Jesus, 41, 44, 86, 107, 213;
military metaphors and, 106–8;
parables of, 87, 101, 102, 104, 105;
paradise image and, 209;
popularity as theme, (p.306) 99–100;
Psalm 23 and, 42, 87, 100, 102–4, 209, 213;
refreshment of water and, 213;
salvation and, 108;
seal (marking) and, 41, 59, 103, 104, 105, 109, 190, 213;
wedding metaphors and, 108, 109, 110
Shoemaker, Stephen, 159, 161, 198
sign. See seal
silver tetradrachm (of Orades II), 235n78
Simeon Stylites (Syria), 186
Simon Peter. See Peter
sin, 205, 206, 207, 218;
absolution of, 97;
cleansing and remission of, 155, 157, 158
Siphor, 105
Siseos, 30, 40
slingers, 71–73, 73, 81, 235n81
snake (in paradise), 204, 204, 205
Snyder, Graydon, 28
soldier of Christ, 140
soldiers. See military; Roman army
solitaries (sons of the covenant), 210–11
Sophia, 214
soul, healing/restoration of, 97, 98, 104, 199
Spain, 112
speaking water. See “living” (flowing) water
sphragis (seal), 59, 190
Spinks, Bryan, 55–56;
“Baptismal Patterns in Early Syria,” 155, 156
spinning, Annunciation scene, 165, 166, 167
Spirit. See Holy Spirit
spiritual healing, 97
spiritual marriage, 27, 44, 59, 109, 124, 129–40, 153, 200;
initiation as, 133–40, 141;
Mary and, 199;
military metaphor for, 139;
as non-sex-specific, 139;
prevalence as early Syrian motif, 140;
Syrian asceticism and, 136, 138, 141;
as woman at a well motif, 190–91, 195
spiritual pregnancy, 43
spiritual womb, 193
spring:
Annunciation depiction at, 165, 166; “living” water from, 213;
pilgrimage to, 187;
women drawing water from, 214
Squire, Michael, Image and Text in Graeco-Roman Antiquity, 196
stamp. See seal
stations of the cross, 113
Styx River, 78
Symbols of Church and Kingdom (Murray), 192
Symposium of Methodius, 28
synagogue (Dura-Europos), 11, 15, 30, 225nn41, 43;
Christians and, 20, 26;
final archaeological report (1956) on, 26;
image of Moses at Well of Be’er, 69, 70, 146;
image of Samuel anointing David, 49, 50;
militaristic art, 69, 69, 70, 70, 71;
Purim panel, 38, 112;
significance of finding, 15
Synoptic Gospels, 64, 67, 94, 118, 155
Syria, 6, 20–21, 45, 47, 143;
deities, 14;
French post–World War I mandate, 13;
iconography, 141, 142, 143;
influential Christians in, 20, 21;
Roman governorship, 77;
Roman-Persian hostilities and, 81;
Sasanian conquest of, 10;
textual traditions, 83–84. See also Dura-Europos
Syriac Bible, 193
Syriac language, 6, 26, 40, 46, 53, 193;
Estrangela script, 57;
messiah and, 51
Syrian Christianity, 20–22, 26–30, 206–19;
Adam and Eve narrative and, 43, 206–11;
Annunciation scenes and, (p.307) 171, 172, 185, 193–94;
anointing ritual and, 30, 41, 48, 49, 59–60, 85, 140, 145, 155, 193, 218;
apocryphal Acts, 27;
apostles and, 20;
asceticism and, 30, 135, 136, 210–11;
baptism and, 105, 135, 140, 155, 218;
celibate boundaries and, 106, 135–36, 138;
classic exposition of, 192;
Codex Purpureus Rossanensis (Rossano Gospels) and, 143–48, plate 8;
Diatessaron and, 26, 31, 81, 207, 216, 228n80;
Didache and, 20, 51, 63;
distinctive motifs of, 30, 96–97, 192, 218–19;
Dura-Europos baptistery paintings relevance to, 202;
earliest extant authored text and, 46;
earliest extant ritual commentaries and, 85;
earliest liturgical sources for, 51;
healing and bodily health images, 30, 96, 97–99, 208;
illumination and, 30, 143–46;
incarnation and, 58, 193;
initiation rites and, 22–30, 41, 47, 58, 64, 83, 84–85, 104–7, 136–40, 141, 147, 202, 206;
Jesus’ and Peter’s miracles and, 41, 42, 91–93;
liturgical diversity of, 55–56;
liturgical sources of, 212–18;
locus sanctus sites of, 186;
Marcionite canon and, 206–7;
Mar Musa al-Habashi church paintings, 141, 142, 143, 148, 172, 180, 181;
marriage motifs, 28, 30, 42, 45, 130, 131–32, 134–36, 138, 192, 207–8, 210;
marriage vs. celibacy and, 136;
“Mary’s new well” theme and, 191;
Odes of Solomon and, 26, 29, 43, 91–93, 212–18;
“robe of glory” motif and, 207, 209;
Roman soldiers and, 20, 21–22, 26;
salvation concept, 198, 202, 207–8;
seal emphasis, 58, 86–87;
solitaries (sons of the covenant), 210–11;
spiritual marriage and, 138, 140, 141;
“Vienna Genesis” illustrated manuscript and, 182;
virginity motif, 30;
Wise and Foolish Virgins model, 140–41, 211
Tacitus, 75, 160
Tatian, 20;
“On Perfection,” 81–82. See also Diatessaron
Tbilisi (Georgia), Annunciation scene on censer, 176, 176
temple:
Annunciation in front of, 199;
veil of, 200;
virgins dedicated to, 152–54, 159, 160
Temple of Apollo (Carthage), 112
Temple of Archers (Dura-Europos), 13
Temple of Artemis (Dura-Europos), 13
Temple of Bacchus/Dionysus (Spain), 112
Temple of Diana (Carthage), 112
Temple of the Palmyrene Gods (Dura-Europos), 7–9, 13, 14;
altar of, 8–9;
graffiti, 78, 113;
Julius Terentius frieze, 7–8, 8, 13, 38, 113–14
tents, second-and third-century portrayals of, 146
terracotta tokens, 183, 185, 186
Tertullian of Carthage, 21, 95, 104, 123–24, 138–39, 157
Testamentum Domini, 27, 30, 147
text-image relationships, 4, 31–40, 135, 195–96
Thaddeus (Addai), 225n47
Thecla, 153
Theodore of Mopsuestia, 57, 84–85, 107, 193;
on prebaptismal anointing, 59–60
Theodoret of Cyrus, 103, 108
Theodotus, 109
three kings. See Magi
threshold, crossing of, 189
tomb of Jesus, procession of women to, 2–3, 31, 42, 44, 111, 118–20, 127–28, 150, 154, 205;
early morning and, 127;
pilgrim souvenirs depicting, 185
(p.308) torches:
oil for, 50, 58, 122, 125, 127;
spiritual marriage and, 132;
virgins processing to temple carrying, 153, 172;
as wedding signifier, 122–23, 124, 125, 134, 135, 137;
Wise and Foolish Virgins carrying, 141, 142, 144, 148, 149. See also procession of women
Tracing the Bridegroom at Dura (Pagoulatos), 28–29
Trajan’s column, 72, 73, 146
travel diaries, 184
“true cross,” 171, 171, 184
Turibius, bishop of Asturica, 53
Turner, Victor, 189, 195
Tychai (guardian spirits), 8, 8
Udell, Jennifer, 123, 124
Uffizi museum, 162;
altarpiece, 169, 170
Understanding Early Christian Art (Jensen), 24
University of Chicago, Oriental Institute, 12, 26
University of Pennsylvania, 25
Valentinianism, 20–21, 109, 124, 138–39, 226n53
Valentinus, 20–21, 109
Valley of Dry Bones, 69, 69, 70, 71
Van Rompay, Lucas, 209
vase paintings, 123, 124
Vatican, 172, 173, 177
veiled sanctuary, 147
veiled women, 4, 111, 115, 122, 124, 127, 128, 152
veil of temple, 199, 200
Venice, 174
Veronica, 113
Vespasian, 235n81
Vestal Virgins, 152
Via Dolorosa, fourteen stations of, 113
“Vienna Genesis” (illuminated manuscript), 182
Vikan, Gary, 184, 186
Virgin and Child, 141, 164
Virgin Mary. See Mary
virgins:
baptism and, 141, 149;
as brides of Christ, 132, 133, 139;
celestial choir of, 153;
dedication to temple of, 152–54, 159, 199;
iconographic identifiers of, 122, 127;
male, 132, 134, 139, 140;
marriage and, 127, 132, 136, 140, 210;
meaning of, 43, 135, 153, 202;
procession to bridal chamber of, 42, 109, 122–23, 146–47;
procession to temple of, 152–54, 172;
procession to wedding of, 42, 44, 65, 122–25, 134, 140, 148, 150, 152, 215;
Samaritan Woman as, 197;
symbols of, 127, 136;
Syrian motif of, 30;
as transitional stage, 132–33;
visuality, 33–40, 195–98;
in antiquity vs. modernity, 36–37;
ritual-centered processional, 112
Vööbus, Arthur, 136
walking on water, 41, 44, 86, 87–93, 95, 97, 202–3, 213, plate 4;
earliest extant depiction of, 87, 88, 91;
purpose of, 98–99
warriors. See military
water: anointing and, 55, 66;
Annunciation scenes and (see Annunciation iconic tradition; Annunciation morphological variety); anthropomorphic deities, 165;
baptismal, 40, 53, 57, 58, 66, 88–89, 91, 97–98, 100, 104, 108, 109, 132, 140, 144, 155, 156, 158, 192, 212–13;
imagery, 34, 103, 144–45;
oil empowerment over, 90;
oil-fire-birth-Spirit connection, 58;
paradise and, 216–17;
weapons of David and Christ “hidden in,” 83. (p.309) See also “living” (flowing) water; rivers; well
Way, the, 93
wedding at Cana, 188
wedding banquet, 108, 109, 110, 129, 138, 141, 142, 147, 148;
as eternal life, 148, 214;
parable of, 130, 209, 215
wedding guests, 109, 110, 130
wedding procession:
Dura baptistery painting identified as, 42, 44, 65, 122–25, 140, 147, 150, 209, 215;
at midnight, 133–34;
significance of torches, 122–23, 124–25, 129, 134, 135, 137;
of virgins, 42, 44, 65, 122–25, 134, 140, 148, 150, 152, 215
wedding ring, 137, 168, 169, 186
Weisman, Stefanie, 69–70
Weitzmann, Kurt, 61, 62
well: biblical betrothals at, 158, 182, 190, 195, 197;
Moses at, 69, 70, 146, 190, 197;
pilgrimage to, 187;
pregnancy and, 191;
rope-and-pulley system, 182–83;
Welles, C. Bradford, 21
“Werden casket” Annunciation scene, 165
Wharton, Annabel Jane, 39, 75, 107–8, 113, 128, 134, 195, 230n129
White, L. Michael, 28, 118;
The Social Origins of Christian Architecture, 16
Whitman, Walt, 76
Wilpert, Josef, 96, 142–43, 164
Winkler, Gabriele, 54–55, 56, 120
Wise and Foolish Virgins, Parable of:
allegorical interpretation of, 109, 119, 127–28, 132, 134, 138–41, 144, 211;
baptismal literature and, 134;
Codex Rossanensis illumination of, 143–46, 215, plate 8; Dura procession of women painting identified as, 42, 119, 127–29, 135, 140, 144, 146, 147, 150;
as eschatological judgment scene, 125–26, 144;
as in Gospel of Matthew, 125–29, 134, 215;
iconography of, 141–46, 142, 148;
influence on ritual imagination of, 134–35, 211;
“interior glory” ascribed to, 148;
intertextual meanings of, 148–49;
Jesus’ telling of, 125–26;
as master motif, 134;
original historical context of, 126;
patristic commentaries on, 148–49, 150;
popularity in eastern Christianity of, 140–41, 143, 211;
as Syrian conceptual model, 211
woman at a well (Dura-Europos baptistery painting), 20, 28, 31, 134, 156–58, 157, 161–62, 174, 177, 179–83, 180, plate 9;
argument against identification as Samaritan Woman, 43, 44–45, 156, 182, 190, 191, 209;
argument for identification as Annunciation scene, 43, 45, 150, 151–52, 156, 158, 159, 179–80, 180, 181, 182–83, 193, 194, 195–98;
biblical betrothal scenes of, 158, 182, 190, 195, 197;
as dominant polysemic symbol, 195, 197;
spiritual marriage and, 190–91
womb:
baptismal font as, 192, 193;
baptistery as, 43, 154;
bridal chamber as, 154, 199–200, 202;
Holy Spirit incarnation in, 56, 58, 153, 154, 162, 191, 193, 194, 200;
virginal, 153, 154
women at the tomb. See myrrophores; tomb of Jesus
word, image and, 37
World War I, 11–12
(p.310) Xenophon of Ephesus, An Ephesian Tale, 124
Yale Divinity School, 25
Yale University, 1–2, 3, 14;
Buckingham Chair of New Testament Criticism and Interpretation, 25;
Department of Near Eastern Languages and Literature, 25
Yale University Art Gallery, 224n8;
Dura-Europos collection, 3, 4, 14, 43, 119;
Procession of Women placard, 150–51
Yarbro Collins, Adela, 120
“Zebeinas,” “tribe” of, 6
Zenger, Erich, 74–75
Zeus, 15, 126
Zevros, George, 160
Zipporah, betrothal to Moses, 158