This chapter describes the inherent complexity of the transition process that follows regime change. It finds that polarization can stem from pre-regime issues, repression of the now-defunct regime, the sudden influx of political actors and activity, and revolutions themselves. The chapter argues that to transition to sustainable peace and stability, Arab Spring societies must deal with their deep rifts by engaging in an inclusive and genuine national reconciliation process. It defines national reconciliation as the process of addressing the grievances of parties to a conflict with the aim of redefining their relationships and forging a new social contract. In Libya, Yemen, and Tunisia, the national reconciliation process must include a national dialogue among primary stakeholders, seeking the truth of what really happened in the past, reparations for victims’ past injuries, holding the former regime accountable for its actions, and the reform of state institutions. The chapter also outlines the other layers of post-conflict or post-regime change transitions: transitional justice, post-conflict reconstruction, and post-conflict development.
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