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The Rise and Fall of Communism in Russia$
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Robert V. Daniels

Print publication date: 2007

Print ISBN-13: 9780300106497

Published to Yale Scholarship Online: October 2013

DOI: 10.12987/yale/9780300106497.001.0001

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Marx and the Movement of History

Marx and the Movement of History

(p.17) Chapter 1 Marx and the Movement of History
The Rise and Fall of Communism in Russia

Robert Daniels

Yale University Press

Marxism emerged in the nineteenth century as an optimistically evolutionary system of social thought that offered a scientific analysis and explanation of history. Karl Marx's system of thought has been subject to a wide range of interpretations and emphases, and surprisingly had its own historical development. This chapter explores the historical evolution of Marxism, from Marx's graduation from the University of Berlin in 1841 and his publication of The Poverty of Philosophy in 1847, to his activity in the revolutionary movement preceding and during the upheaval of 1848, his study of the economic development of capitalism, and his renewed interest in active politics within the context of the International Workingmen's Association. It also discusses the doctrine of “historical materialism” as the core of Marx's theory of history, along with his doctrine of classes and the class struggle. Finally, it examines Marx's theory that the natural outcome of capitalism was the proletarian revolution and the creation of the classless society of Communism.

Keywords:   Communism, Marxism, Karl Marx, capitalism, class struggle, historical materialism, The Poverty of Philosophy, International Workingmen's Association, revolutionary movement

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