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Managing Labor Migration in the Twenty-First Century$

Philip Martin, Manolo Abella, and Christiane Kuptsch

Print publication date: 2006

Print ISBN-13: 9780300109047

Published to Yale Scholarship Online: October 2013

DOI: 10.12987/yale/9780300109047.001.0001

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(p.216) Index

(p.216) Index

Source:
Managing Labor Migration in the Twenty-First Century
Publisher:
Yale University Press

Note: f indicates figure; t indicates table.

Accounting and mutual recognition agreements (MRAs), 80–81
Afghanis in Middle East, 40
AFL-CIO, 167
Africa: demographic trends in, 9;
and flooding due to climate change, 52;
health care professionals emigrating from, 70;
migration in, 15, 42–45;
new nation-states in, 11;
professionals emigrating from, 57, 125;
refugees in, 43–44;
reimbursement demands for health care professionals emigrating from, 71–72. See also individual countries
Aging population and health care professionals, 63
Agriculture: developing countries' focus on, 163;
H-2A visas (U.S.), 105–108;
Jamaican immigrants in, 48–49;
migrants coming from 10;
Albania, 97, 153
Algeria, 16, 42, 43, 91
American International Group and outsourcing, 67–68
Amnesty programs, 128
Annan, Kofi, 151
Anti-immigration sentiment: in Australia, 51;
in Europe, 14, 19, 21, 23;
in France and Netherlands, 26;
in Germany, 90;
in Switzerland, 92
Archavanitkul, Kritaya, 136, 137
Argentina, 49–50, 161, 162
Aristide, Jean-Bertrand, 49
Asia, migration in, 14, 34–40, 58. See also individual countries
(p.217) Asian-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Business Travel Card, 80
Asian Research Center for Migration (ARCM), 144
Asylum seekers, 4, 8–9;
in Australia, 50–51;
EU policies on, 24, 25;
in Switzerland, 93;
in U.S., 30, 47–48
Athletes, P-1 visas for, 108
Australia, 50–51
Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook (IMF), 153
Bangladesh, 40, 52
Beijing Platform of Action of the Fourth World Conference on Women, 165–166
Bhagwati, Jagdish, 76, 123
Black, Richard, 76
Blocher, Christoph, 119
Bolivia, 50
Boonchuwong, Pongat, 144
Border commuter programs. See Commuter programs
Brazil and FDI, 161
Brazilians of Japanese descent, migration of, 49
British National Health Service and foreign nurses, 72
British West Indies Central Labor Organization (BWICLO), 157
Brokers: recruiting professionals, 64, 68, 72;
in Thailand, 149
Brown, Mercy, 57
Burkina Faso, 44
Bush, George W., 28, 29, 47
CAFTA (Central American Free Trade Agreement), 48
California: processing-tomato industry, 126–127;
Proposition 187 (proposed, but not implemented), 28, 152
Cambodia, 135, 149
Canada: Asian immigration to, 34;
Chinese immigration to, 39;
economic integration of immigrants, 27–28;
Immigration Act of 1976, 27;
migration policy, 27–28, 129;
as nation of immigrants, 14;
provincial role in migration administration, 27;
in Puebla Process, 152;
seasonal guest worker programs, 109, 110–113, 111t;
TN visas for entry to U.S., 97, 108
Canberra Manual deinitions, 62
Caouette, Therese, 135
Caribbean countries. See Latin America, migration in
Carrington, William, 57
Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA), 48
Certiication and attestation for foreign workers, 65, 89, 99, 111. See also U.S. Department of Labor
Chile, 161
China: and FDI, 161;
and flooding due to climate change, 52;
household registration in, 38;
migration in, 38–39;
and remittances, 157;
and return of professionals trained overseas, 76, 123;
ruralurban migration, 10, 35, 38;
student immigrants to Japan from, 36
Chretien, Jean, 27, 110
Citizenship policies, 17–18, 93, 119
CNMI (Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands), 51
CODETRAS (Collectif de defense des travailleurs étrangers dans l'agriculture), 118
Codevelopment, 162
Colombia, 50
Colonies, migration from to home countries, 15–16
Commonwealth Caribbean and Mexican Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program (Canada), 110
(p.218) Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), 51
Commuter programs: in Germany, 99;
in Israel, 42;
for Mexican workers in U.S., 95, 98;
in Switzerland, 119;
in Thailand, 137
Compubahn, 68
Construction industry: in China, 38;
in Germany, 98, 102;
in Taiwan, 8;
in Thailand, 136, 137, 145–146
Costa Rica, 47
Cuba, 48, 71
Czech Republic, 104, 161, 162
De la Cruz, Angelo, 38
Dechboon, Waraporn, 144
Deep Sai Consulting Inc., 68
Definitions: of international migrant, 3;
of refugee, 25;
of skilled migrant, 62
Demand-pull factors in migration, 7, 7t
Demographic trends and migration, 9
Detragiache, Enrica, 57
Developed countries, immigrants to, 3–4. See also individual countries and regions
Developing countries: agriculture as focus of, 163;
and GATS, 79–81;
immigrants to, 4;
policies to encourage remittance and return of students and professionals, 123;
professionals' emigration from, 57–58, 63–64;
and sustainable migration, 131–132. See also individual countries and regions
Discrimination. See Anti-immigration sentiment
Distortion and dependence of guest worker programs, 85, 93, 94, 121, 125–129
Diversity immigrants in U.S., 30
Domestic helpers: Asian immigrants as, 35, 40;
Thai immigrants as, 146–147
Dominican Republic, 48, 152
Dore, Ronald, 125
Durban Declaration and Programme of Action, 166
Economic reasons for migration, 9–10, 27
Ecuador, 50
Egypt, 153
El Salvador, 47, 48
Ellerman, David, 60
Employment-based immigrants in U.S., 29–30, 65–69, 66t
Entertainers, P-1 visas for, 108
Equal wages. See Wage equalization
Eritrea, 123
Europe: citizenship policies, 17;
debate over migration in, 21;
demographic trends in, 9;
emigration to Americas from, 15, 60;
family unification policy, 8;
guest worker programs, 16, 53, 88–94;
migration policies, 12, 15–26;
percent of foreigners in population and in labor force, 16–17, 171;
professionals' migration, 58;
projection of migrant population needed to maintain labor force in, 21, 22t;
reluctance toward immigration, 14, 19, 21, 23;
Sub-Saharan African migration to, 42. See also European Union (EU); individual countries
European Union (EU): accession of eastern European countries and migrant policies, 21, 23, 151;
accession of Turkey and migration policies, 23, 151;
asylum policies, 4, 12, 24, 25;
farm subsidies in, 163;
freedom of movement in, 11, 23, 89, 150;
mutual recognition agreements (MRAs) in, 80–81;
non-EU foreigners, (p.219) employment and unemployment of, 84, 85t;;
quota approach to immigration proposed for, 26;
Schengen agreement, 24–25
Extraordinary ability, O-1 visas for, 108
Extraordinary ability, O-1 visas for, 108
Factors contributing to migration, 4, 6–13
Family unification as reason for migration, 8, 27, 29
Farm subsidies, 109–110, 162–163
FARMS (Foreign Agricultural Resource Management Services, Canada), 111
Findlay, Alan M., 69
Fisheries and fish processing in Thailand, 136, 144–145
Forced savings programs, 157
Foreign Agricultural Resource Management Services (FARMS, Canada), 111
Foreign direct investment (FDI), 77, 78, 79, 82, 152, 161
Foreign students. See Student migrants
Former Soviet countries and migration trends, 10–11, 42. See also individual countries
Fox, Vicente, 28, 47
France: Algerians migrating to, 16, 91;
anti-immigration sentiment in, 26;
bilateral agreements with, 91;
development aid from, 162;
guest worker programs, 90–91;
Mali-France Consultation on Migration, 162;
projection of migrant population needed to maintain labor force in, 21, 22t;
return to country of origin encouraged in 1970s, 19;
seasonal migrants, 109, 116–118, 117t
Franklin, Benjamin, 33
Frisch, Max, 93
Future trends in labor migration, 166–167
GDP (gross domestic product) differences among countries, 9–10
General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), 76–82;
and demands of developing countries, 79–81;
and liberalization of migration, 84–82;
migration provisions of, 77–79
Geneva Convention definition of refugee, 25
Germany: citizenship policies, 17–18;
commuter Czech and Polish workers in, 99;
encouraging immigrants to return to countries of origin, 19;
guest worker programs, 84, 86–87, 88–90, 98–102;
IT (information technology) workers, green cards for, 23, 99–100, 100t, 102;
migration policies as of 2004, 24;
projection of migrant population needed to maintain labor force in, 21, 22t;
project-tied migration, 98–99;
return to country of origin encouraged in 1970s and 1980s, 19;
seasonal workers (Polish) in, 20f, 97, 102, 109, 115–116, 120;
trainee programs, 99;
Turkish immigrants, policy toward, 19;
unification and migration from east to west, 19
Giscard d'Estaing, Valéry, 91
Global Commission on International Migration, 151
Global warming, effect of, 51, 52
Globalization, effects of, 63
Great Migration to urban areas, 10, 18, 38
Greece, 88
“Green card commuters,” 95
Gross domestic product (GDP) differences among countries, 9–10
Guatemala, 47
Guest worker programs, 83–120;
classifying programs, 96–97;
commuter (p.220) workers, 98, 119;;
distortion and dependence, 85, 93, 94, 121, 125–129;
Europe, 16, 53, 88–94;
large-scale programs, 86–95;
managing, 121–129;
professionals, movement of, 122–125;
rationales for small-scale programs, 97–98;
recruitment of first workers, 7–8;
and rotation concept, 16, 18, 35, 53, 89–90, 93, 119–120, 129;
seasonal programs, 109–119;
and settlement, 53–54;
small-scale programs, 95–109;
unintended consequences of, 84–86. See also Highly skilled guest workers; individual countries
H-1C visas for nurses, 108
H-2A and H-2B visas. See Unskilled workers
Haiti, 48
Hanson, Pauline, 51
HCRA (human capital replenishment assistance) to migrants' countries of origin, 123–125
Health worker emigration: from developing to industrialized countries, 63, 82;
and immigration to Germany, 99;
India's and Philippines' marketing abroad, 72;
from South Africa, 45, 71. See also Nurses
Highly skilled guest workers, 55–82;
alternatives to, 64–65;
brain drain fears, 58–61, 69;
brain drain responses, 70–76, 122–125;
brokers recruiting, 64, 68, 72;
cumulative loss, 57–58;
definition of skilled migrant, 62;
and educational selectivity, 57–58;
European policies toward, 23;
German policies toward, 24;
H-1B visas for foreign professionals, 28, 30–31, 62, 65–69, 66t, 96, 97t, 105–106, 107t;
human capital replenishment assistance (HCRA) to migrant countries of origin, 123–125;;
impacts abroad, 62–70;
and L-1 visas, 68–69, 96, 97t;
need for professional migrants, 64–69;
and “new economics of the brain gain,” 61, 69;
as percent of all migrants, 56;
recruitment of, 64, 68, 71–74;
and remittances, 70, 74–75;
return of, 69–70, 75–76;
settlement of, 82, 129;
from South Africa, 45;
trends, 62–64;
U.K. Highly Skilled Migrant Programme, 103, 129
Hmong, 34
Honduras, 47
Hönekopp, Elmar, 98
Hong Kong, 149
Human capital replenishment assistance (HCRA) to migrant countries of origin, 123–125
Human rights, 12, 93, 165
Hylton, Anthony, 73
IMF: estimate of remittances, 153;
role in encouraging open trade, 152
Immigration Act of 1990 (U.S.), 65, 105
India: and flooding due to climate change, 52;
and H-1B visas for foreign professionals from, 30–31;
and IT professionals' emigration from, 73;
marketing of health care professionals abroad, 72;
outsourcing of U.S. jobs to, 67–68;
and post-partition migration, 40;
and professionals' emigration from, 40, 57, 70, 73;
and remittances, 74, 153
Indonesia, 39–40, 41
Information technology. See IT (information technology) workers
Integration issues: in Canada, 27–28;
in EU, 18, 21;
in France, 90;
in Germany, 19, 24, 90, 101;
in Japan, 36;
in Switzerland, 93;
in U.K., 129
(p.221) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 52
International Labor Organization (ILO): conventions on migrants, 6, 126, 129, 163–166, 169–189;
and definition of slave, 44;
“A Fair Deal for Migrant Workers in the Global Economy” (report), 166;
on professionals' migration effects, 62
International Organization for Migration (IOM), proposed, 76
Internationalists vs. nationalists, 60
Iraq and Filipino migrants, 38
Ireland, 6, 102, 104, 123
Israel, 41–42, 149
IT (information technology) workers, 23, 70, 73, 82, 99–100, 100t 102. See also Highly skilled guest workers
Italy: Argentine immigration to, 49–50;
and foreign population, 16, 17, 21;
guest worker programs, 120;
and immigrants from Albania and Morocco, 97;
legalization of unauthorized foreigners, 128;
projection of migrant population needed to maintain labor force in, 21, 221;
Swiss-Italian agreement, 92;
and trade, investment, and development, 159, 161
Ivory Coast, 44
J-1 visas. See United States
Jamaica, 48, 57, 70, 73–74, 125, 157
Japan, 35–37, 49, 149, 163
Jordan, 153
Kennedy, John F., 95
Korea. See South Korea
Korea Federation of Small and Medium Business, 36–37
Kuwait, 41
Labor brokers. See Brokers
Labor markets: in Asia, 37;
and global labor force statistics, 56t;
in Thailand, 141–142
Laos, 135, 149
Large-scale guest worker programs, 86–95;
in France, 90–91;
in Germany, 86–90;
Mexican braceros in U.S., 94–95;
in Switzerland, 91–93
Latin America, migration in, 15, 46–50, 57;
professionals from, 58;
seasonal workers from, 110. See also individual countries
Le Pen, Jean-Marie, 26
Lee, Joseph, 8
Legalization programs, 128
Lesotho, 153
Liberalization of migration and GATS, 81–82
Liberalization of trade. See World Bank
Liberia, 43
Libya, 42, 43
London Transport, 16
Lowell, B. Lindsay, 69
Luxembourg, 16, 17
Malawi, 71, 125
Malaysia, 6, 35, 39–40, 149, 161, 162
Mali, 43, 44
Mali-France Consultation on Migration, 162
Managers: and L-1 visas, 68–69, 96, 97t;
U.K. migration of, 103
Managing guest worker programs, 121–129;
Maquiladoras, 95
Maras, 48
Mechanization of manual labor, 44, 49, 89, 127
Mexican braceros in U.S., 46, 86, 87t, (p.222) 94–95, 127, 157. See also Mexico-U.S. migration
Mexico: Canadian import of seasonal workers from, 110–112;
and FDI, 161;
and Puebla Process (Regional Migration Conference), 152;
and remittances, 47, 153, 157;
rural-urban migration trends in, 10. See also Mexican braceros in U.S.; Mexico-U.S. migration
Mexico-U.S. migration, 28–29, 46–47;
and increased trade, 159;
TN visas, 97, 108. See also Mexican braceros in U.S.
Meyer, Jean-Baptiste, 57
Middle East, migration in, 15, 40–43;
Asian immigration to, 34, 35;
Filipino workers in, 38, 41. See also individual countries
Migration patterns, 14–52. See also individual regions and countries
Miller, Mark, 116
Moldova, 153
Morocco, 42, 43, 88, 91, 97, 117, 153
Most-favored nation status, 78
Motivations for migration, 6–13
Mozambique, 43, 44, 45
Mutual recognition agreements (MRAs) of professional credentials, 80–81
Myanmar, 135, 148, 149
Nationalists vs. internationalists, 60
Naturalized citizens (U.S.), 3
Nauru, 51, 52
Neoclassical economists on convergence between emigration and immigration areas, 60
Netherlands, 16, 26
Network factors in migration, 7, 7t, 8, 11
New nation-states, effect of, 11
New Zealand, 50–51
Nicaragua, 47, 48, 153
Nikkeijin, 36
Nonimmigrants (U.S.), 3, 30
North America, migration in, 26–34. See also Canada; United States
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), 46–47, 97, 108
Number of immigrants, 3–4, 5t, 55
Nurses, 38, 40, 45, 63, 71–73, 99, 108
Nursing Relief for Disadvantaged Areas (U.S.), 108
O-1 visas for workers with extraordinary ability, 108
Obrador, Carlos, 110
Oceania, migration in, 15, 50–52
Official Development Assistance (ODA), 124, 162–163
Oil industry, 15, 34, 40–43
Organization for Economic and Cooperative Development (OECD): Official Development Assistance from, 162;
on professional migration effects, 62–64
Outsourcing, 67–68
P-1 visas for internationally recognized athletes and entertainers, 108
Pacific Islands, migration in, 15, 50–52
Pakistan, 40
Palestinians, 40, 42
Paraguay, 50
Payroll taxes. See Taxation
Persson, Geron, 26
Peru, 50
Peters, Winston, 51
Philippines: health care professionals emigrating from, 72–73;
migration from, 34, 35, 37–39, 41;
professionals emigrating from, 70;
and remittances, 37, 153, 157;
women emigrating from, 34
(p.223) Physicians for Human Rights, 72
Poland: and FDI, 161;
migrant workers in France, 117;
migrant workers in U.K., 104;
seasonal workers in Germany, 20f, 97, 102, 109, 115–116
Portugal, 88, 91
Professional migrants, 40, 55–82, 122–125. See also Highly skilled guest workers
Puebla Process (Regional Migration Conference), 152
Puerto Rico, 49
Quotas: EU possibly applying to immigration, 26;
of H-1B workers, 65, 105;
in Switzerland, 92;
in Thailand, 140;
in U.K., 103–104, 115;
R-1 visas for religious workers, 108
Recruitment: of guest workers, 7–8, 84;
of professionals, 70, 71–74;
in southern Europe for jobs in northern Europe, 18
Refugees, 8–9;
in Africa, 43–44;
Burmese in Thailand not considered as , 135;
in Canada, 27;
defined by Geneva Convention, 25;
effect of aid on, 163;
in U.S., 30
Regional Migration Conference (Puebla Process), 152
Religious workers, R-1 visas for, 108
Remittances: Central American dependence on, 48;
Chinese villages' dependence on, 39, 157;
compared to other financial flows, 152–153, 154f, 155t;
Filipino dependence on, 37, 153, 157;
and highly skilled guest workers, 70, 74–75;
importance and amounts of, 152–159, 156t;
Indian dependence on, 74, 153;
Latin American dependence on, 27;
Mexican dependence on, 47, 153, 157;
switch from informal to formal channels for, 153
Return: encouraged in Europe in 1970s and 1980s, 19;
of highly skilled guest workers, 69–70, 75–76
Romania, 42
Rooker, Lord, 104–105
Rotation. See Guest worker programs
Ruddock, Philip, 50
Rural-urban migration trends, 10, 15, 35. See also Great Migration to urban areas
Russia and student enrollment in science and engineering, 61
Rwanda, 43
SAMCO, 106
Saudi Arabia, 40–41
Schengen agreement (EU), 24–25
Science and engineering higher education, 61, 64, 69;
Science and Engineering Graduate Scheme (SEGS, U.K.), 103
Seasonal Agricultural Workers Scheme (SAWS, U.K.), 109, 113–115, 114t
Seasonal guest worker programs, 109–119, 110t. See also Mexican braceros in U.S.; individual countries
Second-generation foreigners, 17–18
Separatist movements, 10–11
Services, trade in. See Trade in services
Settlement of migrants, 53–54, 82, 85, 129
SEVIS (Student and Exchange Visitor Information System), 31–32
Shinawatra, Thaksin, 134, 138
Siemans and L-1 visas, 68–69
Singapore, 35, 149
Slave, defined, 44
Small-scale guest worker programs, 95–109;
classification of programs, 96–97;
in Germany, 98–102;
rationales for, 97–98;
in U.K., 102–105;
in U.S., 105–109
Smuggling of illegal migrants, 6, 10, 12, 39, 42, 68;
conventions sanctioning, 164, 166;
Thailand, 145, 148, 149;
Social Security and migrant population, 21, 81
(p.224) South Africa, 44–45, 61, 69, 71
South America, migration in, 15, 49–50. See also Latin America, migration in
South Korea, 36–37, 123, 157, 159
Spain: bilateral agreements with European countries, 88, 91;
guest worker programs, 120;
and immigrants from Albania and Morocco, 97;
legalization of unauthorized foreigners, 128;
seasonal migrants in France from, 116;
South American immigration to, 49–50;
Sub-Saharan African migration to, 42;
and trade, investment, and development, 161
Sri Lanka, 40
Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS), 31–32
Student migrants: in Japan, 36;
in OECD countries, 62–63;
in U.K., 103, 113–115;
Sub-Saharan African migration to Europe, 42
Supply-push factors in migration, 7, 7t
Switzerland, 91–93, 109, 118–119
Taiwan, 8, 39, 75, 123, 149
Tata and L-1 visas, 68–69
Taxation: of employers of unskilled mi-grants, 126, 127–128;
of professional migrants, 123–124
Technical workers. See Highly skilled guest workers
Textiles and garments industries: in Saipan, 51;
in Thailand, 146
Thai Farmers Research Center (TFRC), 142
Thailand, 133–149;
agriculture, 136, 143–144;
border commuter program, 137;
construction, 136, 137, 145–146;
domestic helpers, 146–147;
economy, 133–134;
export of workers from, 149;
and FDI, 161, 162;
fisheries and fish processing, 136, 144–145;
future trends, 147–149;
immigration laws of, 134, 135;
Israel, migration to, 42, 149;
labor markets, 35, 141–142;
migrants to, origin of, 6;
migration policy, 12, 39–40, 134–141;
registration and enforcement policies, 136–141, 139t, 147–148;
textiles and garments, 146
TN visas for Canadians and Mexicans, 97, 108
TOKTEN (Transfer of Knowledge Through Expatriate Nationals) program, 76
Tomas, Patricia A. Sto., 38
Tonga, 153
Trade, investment, and development, 150, 159–162, 160t
Trade in services, 76–82, 77t
Trafficking in humans. See Smuggling of illegal migrants
Trainee status of migrants, 35
Transfer of Knowledge Through Expatriate Nationals (TOKTEN) program, 76
Transportation as factor in migration, 11–12, 94, 111–112
Treaty of Amsterdam (1997), 25
Tunisia, 42, 43, 88, 91, 117
Turkey: accession to EU, 23, 151;
bilateral agreement with France, 91;
bilateral agreement with Germany, 88;
guest workers from, 16;
migration requirements to move to Europe, 19;
and remittances, 153, 159;
ruralurban migration trends in, 10
Unemployment: in Europe, 18–19, 84;
of German foreign residents, 24;
in Israel, 42;
of non-EU foreigners, 84;
in Saudi Arabia, 41;
in South Africa, 44;
of Switzerland's foreign workers, 93
Unions: and seasonal workers, 112–113, 127;
in Thailand, 142;
and unauthorized migrant workers, 165, 167
(p.225) United Kingdom: Chinese immigration to, 39;
Code of Conduct for Recruitment of Health Professionals, 72;
Commonwealth workers migrating to, 16, 102;
guest worker programs, 102–105, 120;
Highly Skilled Migrant Programme, 103, 129;
Immigration Act of 1971, 102–103;
professionals and settlement, 85;
projection of migrant population needed to maintain labor force in, 21, 22t;
Science and Engineering Graduate Scheme (SEGS), 103;
Seasonal Agricultural Workers Scheme (SAWS), 109, 113–115, 114t;
Sector Based Scheme (SBS), 103–104;
student migrants, 113–115;
Working Holiday-makers Scheme (WHMS), 104
United Nations, 163–166;
Commission on Human Rights, 166;
Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, 166;
Development Program's Transfer of Knowledge Through Expatriate Nationals program, 76;
estimation of migrants in developed countries, 55;
Global Commission on International Migration, 151;
International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, 129, 165;
Population Division definition of in-ternational migrant, 3;
projection of migrant population needed to maintain European labor force, 21;
Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea, and Air, 166;
Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, 166
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees: annual report on refugees, 9;
and immigrants refused entry to Australia, 51
United States: amnesty programs for illegal foreigners, 128;
Asian migration to, 34;
Central American migration to, 47;
Chinese migration to, 39;
Cuban mi-gration to, 48;
cultural exchange (J-i) programs, 69–70;
Dominican migration to, 48;
education of foreign-born U.S. residents, 58, 59t;
essential workers, need for, 28;
family unification policy, 8;
farm subsidies in, 163;
foreign students in, 31–32, 32t;
guest worker programs, 29, 105–109;
Haitian migration to, 49;
immigration policy, 28–34;
Jamaican migration to, 48–49, 73;
as major destination of immigrants, 34;
Mexico-U.S. migration, 28–29, 46–47, 86, 87t;
as nation of immigrants, 14;
public attitude toward immigration, 33;
seasonal guest worker programs, 109;
South American migration to, 50;
types of immigrants in, 29–33, 30t;
unauthorized foreigners in, 32–33;
welfare and migrants, 28. See also specific types of visas
Universities. See Student migrants
Unskilled workers: H-2A and H-2B visas (U.S.), 96, 97t, 105–106, 107t;
in Thailand, 135–136;
in U.K., 103
U.S. Commission for the Study of International Migration and Cooperative Economic Development, 161
U.S. Department of Labor: approval for H-1B visas, 65;
job orders for un-skilled workers (H-2A and H-2B visas), 96;
labor certification by, 67, 106
USA Patriot Act, 52
Venezuela, 161
Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action on Human Rights, 165
Vietnam and remittances, 157
Visas, U.S. See specific type or status of persons (e.g., unskilled workers)
(p.226) Wage equalization: between legal and unauthorized migrant workers, 164, 165;
between local and migrant workers, 126, 167
Women: Beijing Platform of Action of the Fourth World Conference on Women, 165–166;
foreign women, employment/unemployment of, 84, 93;
in maquiladora employment, 95;
Middle East work restrictions on, 41;
in mi-grant population, 16, 34, 35;
role when husbands absent, 159
Work permits, 80
Working Holidaymakers Scheme (WHMS) in U.K., 104
World Bank: Global Development Finance on remittances, 153;
role in encouraging open trade, 152, 162–163
World Conference on Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia, and Related Intolerance, 166
World Health Organization, 71
World Migration Organization, proposed, 151
World Trade Organization (WTO), 81, 109
Yemen, 153
Yugoslavia, 4, 11, 16, 88, 91
Zhao Ziyang, 76
Zimbabwe, 45