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The Unitary ExecutivePresidential Power from Washington to Bush$
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Steven G. Calabresi and Christopher S. Yoo

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780300121261

Published to Yale Scholarship Online: October 2013

DOI: 10.12987/yale/9780300121261.001.0001

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Grover Cleveland's First Term

Grover Cleveland's First Term

(p.209) 22 Grover Cleveland's First Term
The Unitary Executive

Steven G. Calabresi

Christopher S. Yoo

Yale University Press

This chapter focuses on Grover Cleveland and his admiration of Jackson's “presidential independence and the authority of the righteous executive in contest with mischievous senators.” While in office, Cleveland made it “understood that [his cabinet members] were his loyal lieutenants and were to avoid intramural quarrels or dissent. Cabinet officers were expected to observe the policies established by Cleveland for each executive department.” The conflict between the president and Congress over control of the executive branch and the Tenure of Office Act had been brewing since the Grant administration, and reached its climax during Cleveland's first term. As such, Cleveland quickly asserted the authority to direct all executive officials, in one instance overruling a decision of the secretary of the interior.

Keywords:   presidential independence, Grover Cleveland, righteous executive, senators, loyal lieutenants

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