Reason comes with birth, but as with rationality, it develops as people do. This chapter asks the question: how are individuals and communities able to cultivate reason and rationality? The answer must focus on two specific areas: the philosophy of education and the philosophy of history. The first focuses on growth of knowledge, judgment, and rational capacities of individuals. The second looks at the community level, one which may be homogeneous or pluralistic. This chapter begins the discussion by looking at education in Scotland, concentrating on Smith's historical context and the social and political realities that inform his writing. It also looks at his “thoery of learning.”
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