This chapter continues from the last chapter to tell the story of how American lawmakers and judges outlawed the bargaining schemes that had been in existence since the 1600s. They decided that no officer could take a fee unless it was established and fixed by a legislative act. Driven by new ideas, the lawmakers and judges who repudiated negotiation effectively decided that officers were no longer quasi-independent vendors whom the legislature could regulate but sometimes did not. Instead officers had no lawful existence whatever from legislative will. This principle is universally accepted by American lawmakers today.
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