Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Jewish ChristianityThe Making of the Christianity-Judaism Divide$

Matt Jackson-McCabe and John J. Collins

Print publication date: 2020

Print ISBN-13: 9780300180138

Published to Yale Scholarship Online: September 2020

DOI: 10.12987/yale/9780300180138.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM YALE SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.yale.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Yale University Press, 2022. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in YSO for personal use. Subscriber: null; date: 29 June 2022

(p.289) Index

(p.289) Index

Source:
Jewish Christianity
Publisher:
Yale University Press
Abel, 19
Abraham, 45, 148, 194n33;
as archēgetēs, 257n57;
Epiphanius on, 19–20, 178, 238n50;
Irenaeus on, 152, 252n28;
Justin on, 194n31, 238n50
Acts of the Apostles, 168, 172–73, 192n15, 228n75, 249n84 , 256n50, 267n117, 271n142 ;
Baur on, 63, 67, 71, 73–75, 219n139;
Lightfoot on, 79–80, 84, 87;
Morgan on, 48;
place in canon, 26, 67;
Ritschl on, 82, 221n14;
Simon on, 117;
Toland on, 26, 198n60, 200nn67–68
Adam, 64, 213n87;
Epiphanius on, 17–20, 202n84;
Irenaeus on, 151, 252n23;
Pseudo-Clementine Homilies on, 255n48, 258n59
Aelia Capitolina, 86–87
Alexandria, 58, 163, 257n55, 263n83
anachronism:
avoiding, 125;
Christianity as, 247n71;
Jewish Christianity as 119, 132, 134, 231–32n95, 237n41, 247n71;
Judaism as, 243n22, 244n41, 247n71;
Torah observance as, 225n59
angels, 249n84 ;
apostate or fallen, 151, 154, 157, 252n22, 252n24, 254n38. See also demons
animals, 157, 255n49, 256n51, 258n61, 259n65, 262n75;
sacrifices of, 86, 199n64, 251n19
anti-Judaism, 67, 109
Antioch:
community in, 145, 156, 181, 249n4, 267n111 ;
conflict in, 14, 26, 73, 82, 84, 190n6, 200n69, 218n127, 223n40, 225n59, 228n74;
liberal Hellenistic Christianity in, 72;
Pseudo-Clementine Homilies on, 156, 181, 223n40, 255n46, 261n73
anti-Paulinism, 68, 73–75, 78, 79, 85, 89, 91, 94, 103, 117, 240n65 ;
as criterion for Jewish Christianity, 240n65 ;
of Ebionites, 85
anti-Semitism, 1, 109. See also anti-Judaism; Jews: hatred of or by;
Judeans:
hatred of or by
Apocalypse of John. See Revelation (Apocalypse of John)
apocalypticism, 94
apologetics, Christian:
hidden, 100, 110, 114, 140;
historiography without, 111, 119, 122, 132;
impact on scholarship of, 8, 47, 57, 100, 103, 111, 114, 122;
“Jewish Christianity” and, 38, 40, 97, 122, 183;
liberal Christian, 204n2 ;
true or original Christianity and, 51–52, 57. See also historiography: apologetic
apostates or apostasy, 191n13, 235n20, 263n85. See also angels: apostate or fallen
apostles:
apologetic claims refer to, 115;
authority of (see under authority);
Christianism or Christianity of, 29–31, 34, 42, 78–79, 90, 92, 97, 115, 122, 123, 139, 145, 149, 180, 181, 205n12 , 221n8 ;
circumcision and (p.290) (see circumcision: Apostles or Church of the);
continuity with, 253n34;
Ebionites and, 26, 37, 85, 166, 168–70;
Epiphanius on, 168–69, 173;
Hippolytus on, 16;
“Jesus and his,” as phrase, 5, 43–44;
Jewish Christianity of, 7, 27, 30, 34, 47–49, 71–72, 78–79, 85, 87–89, 93, 97, 99, 106, 229n81, 230n90;
Judeans and, 152–54, 170, 171, 179, 180, 181;
Nazoraeans and, 85, 172;
“original Christianity” and, 5–6, 25, 30, 33, 51, 62, 76, 88–89, 180, 238n54;
Pentecost experience of, 93;
principle vs. practice (inner/outer) for, 81–83, 89, 98;
sent to/for the Nations (ethnē), 13, 164–65, 253n35, 261n71;
Tertullian on, 16;
Toland on, 22, 25, 26, 27, 29–31, 33–34, 201n80, 203n92, 206n29;
transcendence of, 4–5, 265n100;
unity of, 74, 78–80, 83, 89, 93, 98, 220n7, 222n15, 226n60 ;
writings by, 57
apostolic community, 4, 34, 268n124;
authority of (see under authority);
in Christian historiography, 5;
deauthorization of, 44;
Ebionites or Nazoraeans and, 7, 13, 29, 37, 166, 233n8;
Jewish Christianity of, 27, 38, 46, 76, 85, 91–92;
New Testament and, 5, 7, 43, 47, 51
Apostolic Decree, 223n38, 256n50;
as boundary marker, 116–17;
Lightfoot on, 81, 83–84;
Morgan on, 48–49;
Ritschl on, 80, 82–83;
Toland on, 26, 200n71, 201n74
apostolic era, 91–92, 225n59, 231n91, 232n95 ;
in apologetic historiography, 43, 57;
Baur on defining feature of, 77, 83;
Lightfoot on, 78, 83, 220n5;
Morgan on, 40, 43–44, 207n31;
paradigmatic function of, 44;
Ritschl on, 80, 221n8 ;
Simon on, 114, 116–17;
Toland on, 25, 40, 47, 196n46, 199n61
Appion (~Apion), 163–64, 262n79, 263n82, 263n84, 264n88
Aramaic, 168, 174, 177, 269n126
Asia Minor, 48, 74, 84, 145, 254n39
astrology, 194n30, 256n53
atheists, 52, 150, 257n56
Athenagoras, 254n39
Augustine, 190n6, 241n4
authority:
of apostles or apostolic community, 5, 10, 7, 22, 38, 40, 44, 47, 51, 76, 78–79, 84, 88, 91, 97–98, 115, 123, 139, 152, 173, 180, 220n5, 224n52;
biblical, 225n53 ;
canonical, 10, 40, 43, 50, 78, 84, 98, 139;
competing claims on, 115;
consciousness and, 208n44, 213n87;
of Jesus, 5, 14, 22, 44, 51, 111, 140, 170, 180;
of Jewish Christianity, 98;
Morgan on reason vs., 45, 49;
of New Testament, 5, 7, 38, 40, 43, 50, 51, 76, 78, 84, 88, 91;
of Old Testament, 214n93;
of “original Christianity,” 28, 30–31, 57, 75, 166;
of Paul or Pauline writings, 40, 44, 51, 72, 76, 85;
of Peter, 223n40, 255n46, 261n73;
pillars of Christian, 7, 38, 40, 76, 91;
of rabbis, 175;
scribal, 161, 175, 177;
supernatural, 58
Babel, 17, 151, 252n28
Babylon or Babylonians, 158, 178, 194n28
barbarians, 158, 162, 164, 257n55, 263n83;
Justin on (barbaroi), 191n13;
Peter as 163
(p.291)
Barbarism, 17, 194n29
Bar Kochba rebellion, 86–87, 109–10, 224n48
Barnabas, 48–49, 86, 93, 163
Barnabas, Gospel of, 21, 24–25, 27, 29, 196nn47–48, 197n51, 198nn59–60, 199nn60–61, 200n65 , 200n74;
ancient vs. modern, 24, 198–99n60, 201n76
Baur, Ferdinand Christian, 7, 37, 50–76, 209nn52–57, 210nn59–65, 211n66 , 226n60 ;
on absolute religion, 55, 57, 58, 62, 91, 209nn53–54;
apologetic historiography of, 38, 51–52, 55, 57;
on apostles, 38–39, 51, 57;
on Catholic Church, 74–75, 77, 85, 218nn130–31, 219n136, 219n139;
Church History, 56, 57, 60, 212n77;
on consciousness (see consciousness);
counternarratives to, 77–80, 84–85, 88–89, 91–92, 95, 98, 140, 207n29 , 227n69, 228n74;
critics of, 1, 51, 84–85, 88, 92–94, 96–98, 101, 106, 107, 109, 113, 139–40, 229n78;
on Ebionites or Nazoraeans, 37, 74, 92–93, 172, 218n131, 226n62, 227n70;
Hegel and, 51–53, 59, 77, 208n47, 211n67;
History of Christian Dogma, 54, 105, 207n35, 209n52 ;
humanist or rationalist, 38, 52, 54, 104–5, 139, 203n1;
importance or legacy of, 12, 21, 38, 50–51, 77–78, 98–99;
incarnational model of, 58, 66, 97, 99, 104;
influences on, 37, 51, 53, 203n1, 203–4n2, 207n35, 208n44, 208n47;
methodology of, 39, 57, 60, 77–78, 100, 211n71;
on New Testament, 38–39, 50–54, 57, 60, 67, 71, 74–75, 78, 84–85, 139;
normative joined to historical by, 209n57;
occlusionistic model of, 66–68, 79, 85, 89, 90, 97, 99, 101, 113;
on origins, 57–62, 68, 109, 209n57, 210n59 ;
on Paul (see under Paul the Apostle);
Paul the Apostle, 63, 212n80, 213nn82–88, 215n100, 215n107, 216n116;
on postapostolic era, 74–75, 77;
on Pseudo-Clementine literature, 155;
scholarship on, 188n11, 203nn1–2, 207–8n37;
students of, 60, 77, 98 (see also Tübingen School);
on supernatural, 52, 57, 58, 63, 210n62;
Symbolik und Mythologie, 208n45, 208n49;
terminology of, 68, 91, 97, 229n78, 230n90;
as theologian, 51–52, 55, 69, 207–8n37;
Toland and, 37–38, 51, 52, 75;
on “true Christianity/religion,” 38, 51–52, 55, 56, 57, 75
Beroea, 172
Bible, 127, 157, 194n31, 253n35, 260n69;
authority of, 225n53 . See also New Testament; Old Testament; and names of individual books
biblical scholarship, 13, 35, 37, 207n34. See also New Testament: critical study of; Tübingen School
boundaries:
Apostolic Decree as, 117;
artificiality of, 115, 126, 127, 141;
of canon, 85;
crossing of, 134;
drawing or setting of, 115, 125–27, 154;
“fuzzy,” 127;
of Judea, 48;
orthodoxy/heresy, 105, 126;
social and cultural, 141, 154, 179;
taxonomic premise and, 154
Boyarin, Daniel, 2, 121, 124, 127–32, 133, 141, 187n2, 263n80 ;
on heresiologists, 129–30;
on Judaism–Christianity continuum, 127, 134, 242n21, 243n22, 243n29, 243n26, 243–44n29;
terminology of, 128–31, 134, 188n9, 242n12, 243nn25
(p.292)
Britons, 256n53
Broadhead, Edwin, 133, 135, 137, 141, 189n21, 239n56, 268n125
Brown, Raymond, 119–21
Buell, Denise Kimber, 251n16, 254n39
Bultmann, Rudolf, 235n21
Caesarea Maritima, 156, 181, 255n46, 261n73
Canaanites, 162, 253n31, 262n76
canon, biblical or New Testament, 7, 65, 78–79, 199n60 , 219n139, 224n44 ;
authority of (see authority: canonical);
boundaries of, 54, 85;
critical approach toward, 43, 50, 57, 78;
formation of, 49–50, 71, 75;
as historical evidence, 221n8 ;
Jewish Christianity and, 99, 107–8, 139;
Jewish ideas or Judaism in, 43, 65, 75, 78, 85, 90–91;
John’s varied works in, 88, 223n41;
noncanonical or extracanonical works vs., 7, 54, 96, 101, 107, 216n111, 224n53;
orthodoxy of, 7
Carleton Paget, James, 118–21, 168, 188n9, 233n10, 240n65 , 266n107
categories, 2–3, 8, 119–20, 132–33, 138, 141–42;
Boyarin on, 243n22;
Irenaeus’s, 150–51, 154;
Jerome’s, 173;
Justin’s, 172;
Munck’s, 106;
naturalized (or not), 9, 134–35, 137–38, 165, 180, 182, 182;
Reed on, 136–37, 143, 247n67;
Schliemann’s, 93–94;
Toland’s, 22–23, 29. See also social taxonomies; taxonomies
Catholicism, 90, 92, 207n36, 231n94;
Daniélou on, 103–4;
early (“Church Universal”), 5, 14, 18–19, 29, 49, 71, 77, 74, 79, 85–87, 89–90, 92, 93, 94, 98, 103, 114, 119, 207n31, 221n8 , 238n54;
Gentile Christianity and, 85–86;
Ignatius or Martyrdom of Polycarp on, 146, 149;
Jewish Christianity and, 49–51, 85–86, 89–90, 98, 103, 110–11, 117, 119;
Judaism-Christianity split and, 124;
Judaism or Judaizers and, 19, 49, 90, 93–95, 98;
Lightfoot or Ritschl on, 85–87, 221n8 , 223n42, 229n85;
Peter and, 49, 74;
Protestant Christianity vs., 5, 50, 75;
Cerinthus or Cerinthians, 25, 168
Christian, category or concept of, 125, 137, 142, 147, 173, 249n4;
absence noted, 156, 165, 265n91 ;
as cipher, 115;
heresiologists’
use of, 15, 34;
Irenaeus’s use of, 252n21;
in 1 Peter, 254n39;
Pseudo-Clementine Homilies and, 165, 265n91 ;
as term of self-identity, 135, 170, 266n111
Christianism (Christianismos), 35, 111, 138, 166, 182;
absence of term noted, 156, 165, 179, 180, 265n91 ;
advantages of term, 11;
as apologetic category, 35, 111;
Christianismos, 11, 123, 136, 145, 147–48, 150, 247n67, 249n5, 250n13;
dissemination of idea of, 154, 155, 171, 180;
eternal or transcendent, 17–21, 123, 180, 181, 194n31, 202n84; hairesis vs., 15, 16, 21;
Ignatius on, 14, 138, 145–50, 171, 179, 249n5, 250n13, 265n101;
Ioudaïsmos/Judaism and, 14, 20, 136, 138, 144–48, 154–55, 170, 176–77, 247n67;
Irenaeus on, 150, 154, 179;
Judean or Jewish practices and, 15;
Martyrdom of Polycarp on, 150;
origin of term, 14, 123, 144–45;
self-definition and, 14, 149, 166;
as stable, singular unity, 14–15, 17, 35, 167
Christianismos. See Christianism; Christianoi
Christianities, 7, 21, 47–48, 124;
Christians vs., 27;
“Jewish” etc., 7, 34, 108, 120, 124, 128, 133
(p.293)
Christianity:
concept or definition of, 2, 14, 41–42, 239n56;
as consciousness, 53, 55, 60, 62–63, 67, 69;
corrupted or perverted, 25, 30–31, 34, 40, 46, 47;
culture and, 32–33, 51, 54–56, 61, 102, 133, 147–48, 248n83, 264n90;
essence of (essential), 8, 53, 54, 56, 60, 63, 65, 67, 71, 75, 81, 93, 96, 134, 209n57, 210n63, 212n80, 220n7, 226n60 ;
Hellenistic, 72, 104, 234n14;
heresy vs., 6, 167;
historical or critical study of, 3, 7–8, 12–13, 21, 53, 57, 75, 77–78, 88–89, 100, 119, 124, 127, 141, 181, 211n71;
history important to, 4–5, 30;
imperial-era, 109, 110, 124, 128, 140, 144, 155;
as inner or internal disposition, 6, 33–35, 42, 53, 61, 81, 226n60 ;
Jewish forms of, 12, 65–67, 71, 79, 87–88, 90, 92, 94, 96, 103, 115, 165;
Judaic, Judaizing, or Judaistic, 91, 93–95, 107–8, 128, 227n65, 229n84, 230n87;
Judaism’s relation to, 1–2, 27, 43, 45, 46, 65–67, 100, 105, 109, 128, 132;
Latin, 234n14;
origins of, 10, 14, 25, 35, 46–47, 54, 56–59, 61–62, 68, 77, 102, 109, 125, 152, 155, 210n62, 212n80, 246n65;
as political faction, 46;
principle of (vs. Jewish practices), 81–82, 89, 98;
pure, 31, 32, 38, 39, 44, 113, 125;
as religion (see under religion);
as social identity, 127–28, 133, 140–42, 144, 189n25;
as term of self-identity, 10, 123–24, 142;
theorizing of, 10, 31, 35, 140, 182, 248n81;
as transcendent (ontological) reality, 4–7, 17–19, 21, 30–35, 38, 39, 45, 47, 51, 52, 54–58, 61, 98, 101, 104, 110, 111, 113, 115, 124, 141, 148, 182;
true, 22, 25, 28, 30–33, 38, 42–44, 46, 47, 50, 51, 56–57;
types of, 14, 21–23, 26–28, 34–35, 49, 51;
Christian Jews, 40, 48–50, 97, 132, 207n31, 244–45n43
Christian Judaism, 28, 95, 144, 230n90;
Boyarin on, 128, 130–32, 242n12;
Malina on, 108, 235n29;
Morgan on, 46
Christianness, 121, 134, 141–42
Christians:
ancestry or ethnicity of 28, 97, 119, 241n80;
authentic or true, 50, 97, 248n82, 264n91;
before Jesus, 115, 194n31, 238n50, 257n54 ;
Christianity vs., 6, 21, 27–29, 98, 119, 148;
Deists as, 41;
Ebionites claim to be, 15, 21, 169–70, 173, 267n111 , 268n118 ;
Ephesian, 146, 148;
ex ethnōn/Ioudaiōn, 6, 12, 21, 28, 170, 180;
genos or “race,” as (see race: Christians as);
Gentile or Gentiles who become, 73, 119–20, 172, 216n107 , 231n91, 231n93, 264n91;
of Jewish descent, 97, 102–3, 232n5;
Jews who become, 26, 96, 98, 108, 235n28;
“Mahometans” as, 22–23, 27–28;
self-described, 30, 129, 146, 150, 170, 181, 191n13
Christology, 98, 134, 172, 200n65 , 231n90 , 232n96, 266n109
Chrysostom, John, 116, 247n66
Church, the:
apostolic, 4, 91, 107;
Baur on, 52, 57, 64, 69, 72, 74;
Daniélou on, 104–5;
“emancipation” of, 79, 82–83, 86, 95;
Epiphanius on, 18–20;
great, 96, 101, 103–5, 108, 227n67, 235n20, 254n40; hairesis vs., 16–17, 20–21;
Harnack on, 90;
Ignatius’s letters to, 145–46;
Irenaeus on, 152, 253n34;
Jerusalem, 72, 87, 217n119 ; (p.294)
“Jewish-Christian,” 118, 237n41, 232n95 ;
Lightfoot on, 78–80, 82–87, 95, 220n5, 221n14, 224n50, 229n83;
“mainstream,” 91, 96;
Morgan on, 46, 49–50;
Ritschl on, 86;
Sub-Apostolic, 108, 204n4, 235n28;
the Synagogue and, 110, 140, 152, 236n38, 253n32;
universal (ekklēsia katholikē), 17, 19, 21, 83, 146, 149, 150, 179, 250–51n15
Church(es):
Judean, 87, 226n61
circumcision:
Apostles or Church of the, 83–85, 87, 220n5, 223n35, 223n41, 229n85;
Baur on, 68, 73, 74, 218n127;
Epiphanius on, 19–20, 178, 194n34, 195n36, 267n117;
Ignatius on, 146, 148;
Lightfoot on, 80, 83, 220n5, 223n35, 223n41, 229n85;
Morgan on, 46, 207n31;
Munck on, 112;
rejected, 26, 74;
required, 81, 200n67;
Ritschl on, 81;
Tertullian on, 194n33
classification, 20, 126, 134, 154;
Christian systems of, 136–37, 247n66;
“intentionally startling,” 131;
Irenaeus’s system of, 154;
of Islam as Mahometan Christianity, 23, 27, 197n50;
of literature, 219n139;
polythetic, 133–34;
of pre-Christian figures as Christian, 238n50. See also categories; social taxonomies; taxonomies
consciousness, 4, 114, 211n73, 234n17, 238n52;
absolute, 55, 58, 61–64, 66, 69, 72, 91, 208n49;
“of age,” 55, 64–66, 209n52 , 212n74, 219n141;
Christ as principle of, 59, 213n87;
Christianity’s origin in, 53, 58–59, 63;
of Church, 69;
dogma or dogmatics and, 54, 58, 65, 69, 209n52 ;
God as or divine, 53–54, 59;
Harnack on, 89, 226n60 ;
history and, 53, 66, 69;
humanistic revelatory, 57, 104;
Jesus’s, 57–59, 61, 68, 69, 209n57, 213n87;
liberal, enlightened, 75;
moral, 55, 56–57, 61, 66;
national, 216n115;
New Testament and, 71, 219nn140–41;
Paul’s, 63–64, 68, 69, 72, 215n102;
popular, 214n93;
religious, 53, 55–56, 58, 60, 61, 66, 69, 111, 208n44, 211n66 , 213n86;
Schliemann on, 92, 228n72 ;
shift or change in, 57, 61, 63–64, 243n26;
spiritual, 64, 213n87;
Stephen’s, 71;
subjective, 53, 54, 213n82;
universalistic, 67
Constantine, 132, 144, 180
continuity:
claims of, 5, 98, 104, 106, 114, 166–67, 169, 180, 220n7, 253n34;
eschewed or denied, 110, 169;
social, 242n21;
term “Christian” as cipher for, 115
conversion:
of Israel, 81;
of Muslims, 198n58;
of nations, 193n23;
of Paul, 62–63, 67, 72, 113, 210n63
converts, 235n28;
Gentile, 34, 48, 81, 131, 165, 176, 195n43, 215n104, 224n50;
Jewish, 48, 98, 113, 224n50, 231n94;
Pharisaic, 80, 221n14
1 Corinthians, 64, 83, 190n5, 201n80, 206n24, 219n140 (p.295)
2 Corinthians, 14, 219n140
Cornelius, 82, 228n75
corruption, 5–6, 202n82;
by apostate angels, 151, 157;
by Gentiles or pagans, 6, 76, 139;
by heretics, 30, 252n21;
by Jewish followers, 47, 139;
by Judaism, 6, 46;
by rabbis, 174;
by syncretizing followers, 31;
textual, 260n68, 261n72;
as trope in inter-Christian polemics, 43–44;
as trope in Protestant discourse, 5, 233n12;
as trope in Pseudo-Clementine Homilies, 157–61
covenant, 33, 81, 133, 152, 221n14
cults, 248n84, 249n1
culture:
Christianity as, 14, 130;
Christianity transcends or beyond, 4, 8, 30–35, 45, 51, 54–58, 61, 101, 104, 111, 113, 115, 147, 152, 167, 180;
defined, 147, 248n83;
Gentile, 6, 34, 139;
Greek, 158, 160, 162, 163, 257n55;
Hellenistic, 248n84;
humanistic view of Christianity and, 54–55, 111;
Jewish, 6, 10, 33, 34–35, 39, 45–46, 51, 66, 69, 79, 120, 131, 139, 182;
non-Israelite, 174;
religion vs., 4, 34, 79;
shared, 141, 176, 242n21
customs:
ancestral, 161, 163, 165;
of barbarians, 163;
culture and, 158, 248n83;
demonic origin of, 157, 159;
ethnic, 162;
Greek, 158;
Ignatius on, 147;
Irenaeus on, 151, 153–54, 157, 252n24;
Judean, 150, 159–61, 165, 178, 257n58;
Pseudo-Clementine Homilies on, 157–63, 165, 257n58;
Ritschl on, 81–82, 94, 229n81;
Toland on, 26, 35
Daniélou, Jean, 103–5, 111, 122, 126, 128, 133, 233n12, 234nn13–17, 235n21;
Baur and, 104–5;
continuity claimed by, 104, 110;
criticism of, 118;
impact of, 105–6, 115–16, 233n10;
Simon and, 115, 234nn16–17, 236n30 , 239n57;
terminology of, 103, 106–9, 234n15, 234–35n18, 236n30 ;
theology defined by, 104;
Theology of Jewish Christianity, 187n4, 232n3, 234n14;
on thought-forms, 101, 104–8, 117, 121
Dead Sea sect, 112, 115, 169–70
Deism or Deists, 39–46, 203n1, 205nn12–13, 206n21;
Christianity and, 41–43;
Morgan as, 7, 10, 37, 39;
Philalethes as, 39, 40–42
demons, 151, 248n84, 256n51;
Greek learning derived from, 164, 180, 256n54;
heresy derived from, 5, 17, 154, 180, 191n13, 192n18, 192n21, 254n38, 266n110;
Pseudo-Clementine Homilies on, 157–59, 164–65, 256nn51–52, 256n54, 257n55, 258–59n62, 259n65
desire, 156–57
deuterōsis (deuterōseis), 117, 174, 177, 269n129
devil(s) (~Satan, Evil One), 175, 192n16, 251n17, 262n74
dikaiosynē, 67, 68
Diognetus, Epistle to, 193n22 , 254n39
disease, 158, 159, 256n52, 258n61, 259n62
diversity, human, 6, 17, 18, 151–52, 156, 158, 162, 164
dogma, 54–56, 58, 65, 69, 209n52
dosage problem, 115–16, 120, 239n56
Ebion, 91, 168–72, 181, 191n10 , 265n101, 267n115, 268n118 ;
etymology of name, 168, 266n102 ;
Pseudo-Tertullian on, 170
(p.296)
Ebionites, 180–81, 226n61, 227n67, 268n120;
apostolic community and, 7, 13, 37, 85, 166, 169, 172;
Baur on, 37, 67, 74, 92, 172, 214n99, 215n102;
Catholicism and, 87, 92;
Cerinthians and, 25, 168;
as Christians (or not), 15, 29, 34, 85, 92, 115, 167, 169–70, 268n118 ;
Epiphanius on, 167–73, 181, 190n10, 244n32, 271n143;
Essene, 85, 224n45, 229n84;
Eusebius on, 168, 266n110, 267n115;
evidence for, 166–67;
as heretics (or not), 13, 21, 29, 86, 92, 172, 190n10;
Irenaeus on, 14, 153–54, 166, 171, 267n116;
Islam and, 24–25;
Jerome on, 15, 21, 129, 172, 173, 190–91n10, 268n118 ;
as Jewish Christians (or not), 12, 13, 91, 92, 93, 102–3, 120, 129–30, 139, 166, 190n9, 231n90 , 233n8;
as Judeans, 170–71;
Lightfoot or Ritschl on, 85–86, 220n5, 224n47;
Nazoraeans’
relation to, 12, 24–25, 85–86, 171–72;
Origen on, 170, 171, 267n111 ;
Paul and, 25–26, 85, 171;
Pharisaic, 85, 229n84;
Pseudo-Clementine Homilies and, 165;
self-identification by, 168–71;
Simon on, 114–17;
social taxonomy of, 170, 171;
Toland on, 13, 24–26, 29, 34, 130, 139, 196n48, 199n62;
Torah observance by, 169
Egypt or Egyptians, 10, 20, 158, 194n28, 206n22, 249n84 , 252n25;
Hebrews/Israelites in, 20, 178, 194n34;
Pseudo-Clementine Homilies on, 158, 163, 256n53, 257n55, 262n79
Enlightenment era, 30–31, 38, 41, 51, 75–76, 114–15, 124, 139, 143;
in England, 3, 28, 34, 37, 41;
incarnation myth retold in, 13;
“Jewish Christianity” category invented in, 3, 6, 12, 21, 34, 47;
natural religion in, 4;
New Testament in, 6, 12;
supernatural claims reinterpreted in, 4, 52, 181
Ephesus, 74, 146
Epicureans, 193n25
Epiphanius, 178, 188n12, 193n23, 194n28, 194n34, 195n35 , 202n84, 231n94;
Anacephalaeosis (summaries of Panarion), 168, 194n26 , 265n99;
Christianism of, 18–20, 167–68, 191n13, 238n50, 247n66;
on hairesis/heresy (see under hairesis);
Judaism classed as heresy by, 20, 195n36;
Panarion, 16–20, 169, 191n12;
on Paul, 267n117, 269n134;
post-Baur scholars’
use of, 85, 91, 172
eschatology, 82, 83, 98
Essenes, 58, 85, 210n62
ethnē, 13, 146, 159, 161–62, 261n73
“ethnic” people, 154, 160, 162, 165, 170, 180, 251n16, 262n76
Eusebius, 237n42, 252n20 , 261n73;
on Christianoi, 191n13, 266n110;
on Ebionites or hairesis, 91, 168, 266n110, 267nn114–15;
on Ioudaioi/Judeans, 178, 267n115;
on Philo’s Therapeutae, 268n124
faith, 33, 74, 81, 88, 92, 98, 112, 203n92, 230n87, 237n44;
as core of Christianity (or not), 46, 56, 113, 140–42, 248n82;
Hegel on, 59;
Irenaeus on, 150–51, 153–54, 252n22;
in national messiah, 46;
of poor, 266n107;
Simon on, 237n46, 248n80
family metaphors. See kinship imagery (p.297)
Flood, the, 17, 157
Fouke, Daniel C., 195–96n44, 199n60 , 201n78
freethinkers, 9, 50, 51;
Morgan as, 39, 45;
“original Christianity” claimed by, 5–6, 113–14;
Paul as, 49;
Toland as, 12, 37, 47
Gager, John, 26, 200n70, 242n13, 269n134
Galatia, 13, 80, 229n84
Galatians, 20, 169, 253n30, 261n73, 271n142 ;
Antioch incident in (Gal 2:11–14), 14, 26, 73, 190n6, 228n74, 239n60, 242n4 ;
Baur cites, 73, 217n121, 218n127, 219n140;
in counter narratives to Baur, 79–80, 83–84;
Jerusalem council in (see Jerusalem: council of);
Judeans and Gentiles in, 13–14, 78, 155, 190n5;
Morgan cites, 48;
“Pillars” in (see “Pillars”);
Toland cites, 25–26
Gaston, Lloyd, 26
genealogy:
heresiological strategy, 172, 174, 178;
intellectual, 38
Gentile Christianity, 220n3, 223n41, 227n65;
Boyarin on, 131–32;
category rejected, 179, 180;
Catholicism and, 85–86;
Gentile Christians vs., 119–20;
hybrid, 130;
Jewish, Mahometan, and, 22, 28, 34, 35, 197n51, 200n74;
Jewish Christianity distinguished from, 21, 25, 27–29, 32–34, 38, 47–49, 71, 73, 76, 78, 82, 86, 95, 97–98, 130–31, 204n4, 217n124, 220n3, 232n96, 241n80;
Jewish Christianity merges with, 49, 74;
orthodoxy and, 107, 130, 139;
Paul and, 26, 44, 47–49, 62, 73, 139, 231n93;
true Christianity vs., 34, 98, 195n43. See also Christians: Gentile or Gentiles who become; Gentiles
Gentiles (ethnē, the Nations), 29, 45, 215n104, 222n25, 231n95, 266n111, 270–71n142;
Christians from (ex ethnōn), 6, 28, 34, 144, 180, 196n48, 197n49 ;
circumcision of, 73, 81, 200n67;
culture of, 139;
gospel proclaimed to, 49, 72, 177;
Ignatius on, 145–47;
Irenaeus on, 150–54, 164, 252n22, 253n32, 253n35;
Jewish law or practices and, 26–27, 33, 48, 82, 91, 103, 117, 120, 200n72, 216n107 , 224n47, 268n119;
Judaizers, 117, 239n60;
Justin on, 172, 224n47, 268n119;
Lightfoot on, 87–88, 95, 224n50, 224n52;
Martyrdom of Polycarp on, 149–50, 251n18;
mission to, 49, 70, 72, 80–82, 86–87;
“Nazoraean” commentary on Isaiah on, 174–79, 269n131;
Paul as apostle to, 13–14, 26, 48–49, 82;
Pseudo-Clementine Homilies on, 156, 159, 161–62, 164–65, 170, 176, 180, 255n49, 256n50, 257–58n58, 258n62, 259n64, 261nn73–74, 263n81, 263n87;
restrictions on, 80–81;
Ritschl on, 79–81;
Tertullian on, 254n35 ;
true Christianity and, 34, 47, 195n43
Giants, 157, 258n61
gnosis (knowledge), 153, 190–91n10;
as “key of the kingdom,” 258n60, 260n70
Gnostics or Gnosticism, 15, 120, 154, 167, 207n32, 211n67
Godfearers (theosebeis), 160, 240n69, 259n64, 262n74 . See also piety or the pious (p.298)
gospel, the, 32, 52, 79, 103–4, 170, 221–22n14, 226n60 ;
Abraham conforms to, 19;
conflicting, 73;
essence of, 89, 97;
Greek philosophy or Hellenism and, 90, 103;
Old Testament and, 97;
Paul’s, 26, 49, 72–73, 175, 205n17;
proclaimed to distant tribes, 175–76;
proclaimed to Gentiles, 49, 72, 82, 177;
Protestantism and, 219n141;
of Turks, 196n47;
unity of, 89
gospels (texts), 59, 188n16, 248n84;
critical analysis of, 59–61;
Ebionites or Nazoreans and, 169, 176, 267n116, 269n127, 269n136;
Jewish Christian, 237n42, 241n83, 265n97;
lost, 199nn60–61. See also names of individual gospels
Greek philosophy, 4, 162, 188n12, 191n13, 210n62, 213n89, 214n99, 256–57n54, 257n55, 258n61, 263n83;
Christianity and, 58, 103–4;
Daniélou on, 104;
hairesis or heresy and, 6, 15–16, 18, 194n29;
Pseudo-Clementine Homilies uses terms from, 156, 164, 263n86
Greeks, 10, 90, 139, 180, 194nn30–31, 249n84 , 270n140;
Christians among ancient, 115;
Paul as, 171, 267n117;
Pseudo-Clementine Homilies on, 156, 158–60, 162–64, 180, 257nn55–56, 259n64, 262n79, 263n86, 265n92
Hadrian, 87, 224n48, 227n67
hairesis (“heresy”):
Christians or the Church vs., 15–16, 191n13, 192n16;
Epiphanius on, 15–21, 167–68, 192n14 , 192n19, 193n23, 194n29, 195n35 ;
Eusebius on, 91, 267n115;
as Greek philosophical school, 15, 18;
Hellenism and, 16, 17, 19, 20;
Ignatius on, 191n13;
Jerome on, 15;
Justin on, 192n16;
Tertullian on, 16. See also heresy
Harnack, Adolf von, 89–90, 101, 105, 122, 227n65;
critics of, 101–3, 109, 140, 226n62, 234n16, 235n21;
on Ebionites, 226n62, 230n90;
on essence of Christianity, 89, 226n60 ;
as liberal Protestant, 233n12;
mythical-historical narrative, 90;
terminology of, 96–97, 230n90, 231n91
heathens, 33, 64, 213n82, 213n86, 250n8
Hebraists or Hebrew/Hebraistic Christians, 72, 95, 108, 229–30n85, 235n28
Hebrew (language), 168, 173, 174, 176, 177, 253n28 , 269n126
Hebrews (NT book), 219n139
Hebrews (people;
Hebraioi), 163, 178, 235n28, 267n114;
Gospel of the, 199n61;
Pseudo-Clementine Homilies on, 159, 165, 257nn57–58, 259n66, 260nn67–68, 264n89
Hegel or Hegelianism, 51–53, 59, 77, 208n47
Hegesippus, 91, 191n13, 219n139, 227n67, 229n85
Hellēnes, Hellēnismos, 11, 249n5
Hellenism, 16–20, 90, 194n28, 239n57, 263n80 , 263n85, 264n90;
Judaism and, 19–20, 109, 264n91
Hellenists, 71–72, 216n116, 217n119 , 238n47
Heraclitus, 194n31, 257n54
heresiologists, 5–6, 35, 102, 111, 114, 171, 174, 180, 190n9, 235n20, 238n53, 265n100, 266n104;
basic assumptions of, 167;
Boyarin on, 129–30, 131;
categories or taxonomies of, 14–17, 19, 21, 111, 167, 170, 182, 190n9;
Catholic, 5, 14, 29, 119, 238n54;
early, 5, 15, 21, 31, 55, 238n54;
Ebion invented by, 169, 172;
genealogies (p.299) invented by, 174, 178;
naming in rhetoric of, 167–70, 173;
Toland and, 13, 30, 31, 34
heresy, 98, 129–30, 170–75, 191n13, 198n58, 234n15;
Christianity vs., 6, 16–17;
Epiphanius on, 172–74, 190n10, 192n14 , 192n22, 195n36, 244n30;
Eusebius on, 267n115;
Hippolytus on, 194n30;
Irenaeus on (see Irenaeus: Against Heresies);
Jerome on, 15, 173–74, 190n10, 244n30, 268n118 ;
Jewish Christian, 93, 106–7, 111;
Justin on, 254n28 ;
meaning of, 15;
Nazoraeans classed as, 86;
orthodoxy vs., 54, 96, 101, 105, 111, 114, 126, 153, 216n111;
reclassified as Jewish Christianity, 9, 29, 139, 166;
sources of, 168;
taxonomies of, 5, 16, 167;
Tertullian on, 191n13, 192n18, 193n25, 268n118 . See also hairesis
heretics, 16, 30, 191n13, 192n19, 228n73;
Christians vs., 193n23;
Ebionites as, 86, 92, 114;
followers of, 254n40;
Hellenistic and Jewish, 16;
Judaizing, 129;
sects of, 105;
social taxonomies among, 167, 173–75, 178
Hesiod, 256n54
hierophany, 4, 10, 18, 35, 58, 102, 123, 125, 180
Hilgenfeld, Adolf, 78, 220n7, 221n9
Hippolytus, 16–17, 193n22 , 194n30, 244n32
historiography:
apologetic, 8–10, 30–31, 43, 47, 103, 106, 113, 119, 140;
competitive, 5;
critical, 27, 30–31, 57, 111, 119, 121, 123, 235n20;
ecclesiastical, 22, 235n20;
Epiphanian, 20, 172;
heresiological, 30–31, 178, 181;
post-Christian, 121, 123;
history of religions, 35
Hitler, Adolf, 98, 102
Hoennicke, Gustav, 97, 188n11, 225nn58–59, 226n61, 227nn66–67
Holocaust, 1, 10, 100, 103, 105, 109, 121
Holy Spirit, 4, 16–17, 31, 56, 58, 151, 193n23, 226n60 , 228n75, 253n35;
at Pentecost, 93
Homer, 256n54
Horrell, David G., 118, 240n68
Hort, F. J. A., 125, 187n2, 187n4, 225n57, 226n61, 227nn65–67;
Baur and, 230n86;
on Diaspora Revolt, 226n61;
on Ebionites, 226n61, 227n67;
on Jewish Christianity as anachronism, 225n59, 231n95;
terminology of, 95, 128, 230n87
humanism, 38, 52, 111, 182;
Baur’s, 38–39, 51–52, 54, 65, 75, 104–5;
Morgan’s, 38–39, 51–52, 75;
Toland’s, 22, 31, 35–36, 38–39, 47, 52, 65, 75
humanity, 31, 32, 151, 154, 160, 164, 165, 251n16
human nature, 151–52, 154, 157, 159, 161, 164, 213n87;
“second nature” and, 157, 159
hybrids, 75, 126, 127, 129–30, 138–39, 141;
angelic-human, 157
hyphens, 130, 132, 134, 138, 237n41, 245n54
identity, 123, 127, 134, 137, 147, 182, 249n1, 251n19, 264n91, 265n91 ;
changed, 162;
“Christian” or “Christianity” as terms of, 15, 141–42, 170, 254n39;
cultural, 123, 133, 145;
declaration of, 150;
ethnic, 150;
fluid, 123, 126, 133;
group, 164, 169, 248n83;
identification vs., 247n68;
Ioudaioi as term of, 257n58;
modern terms or discourse of, 189n23, 246n63; (p.300)
relativized, social construction of, 10, 32, 123–26, 133–35, 141, 142, 144, 165, 167
Ignatius of Antioch, 14, 138, 145, 171, 179, 247n66, 249n3;
atopos used by, 148, 265n101, 268n123;
Christianism (Christianismos) used by, 14, 145, 147, 250n13;
To the Ephesians, 146–49, 250n12;
on Jesus Christ, 148, 191n13, 250n14;
letters of, 145–50, 166, 219n139, 249n3, 249n5, 250n6 , 251n20;
To the Magnesians, 147, 190n8, 250nn12–13, 265n101, 268n123;
Parting of the Ways model and, 136;
To the Philadelphians, 146–49, 190n8, 250n12;
Polycarp and, 149–50, 154, 251n20;
To the Romans, 146–47, 149, 250n6 , 250n12;
social network of, 145–46, 149, 150, 154, 164, 171;
taxonomy of, 146–49
incarnation, 104, 148, 214n95, 234n17;
Epiphanius on, 18, 20;
heresies prior to, 16;
humanistic retelling of, 4, 13, 31, 34–36, 58, 65–66, 182
incarnational model, 89, 90, 104–5, 124, 139;
Baur’s, 65–66, 97, 99;
below surface, 100;
Harnack’s, 230n90;
Parting of the Ways model and, 7;
persists in post-Holocaust era, 121;
Toland’s, 7, 9–10, 35–36, 65, 79, 99, 102, 104
internal disposition, 33–35, 42
Ioudaioi, Ioudaïsmos:
ancient use of term, 129, 131, 136, 178, 180, 247n67, 270n140;
“believing,” 160, 250n7;
Boyarin on, 129–31;
Christians from, 6, 12;
Ebionites and, 170, 267n114, 267n115;
Epiphanius on, 19, 173, 242n12, 267n112, 267n115;
God of, 257n57;
Ignatius on, 145–46, 148, 249n5, 250n13;
meaning of term, 10–11, 126, 129, 257n58;
proselytes to, 258n58 , 259n64;
Pseudo-Clementine Homilies on, 158–65, 180, 257nn57–58, 263n84, 264nn89–90. See also Jews; Judaism;
Judeans
Irenaeus, 166, 188n12, 244n32, 261n73;
Against Heresies, 14, 153, 171, 193n25, 251n20, 252n21, 253n34, 254n37, 266n109, 267n116;
“Christianism” not used by, 150;
community or social network of, 150, 154, 164, 252n21, 254n36, 254n39;
Demonstration of the Apostolic Preaching, 151–54, 193n23, 252nn21–25, 252–53n28, 253nn30–35, 254n38, 256n49 ;
Epiphanius and, 17, 190n10;
on natural law, 151–52, 194n27, 252n23;
Polycarp and, 251–52n20, 253n34;
Pseudo-Clementine Homilies and, 156–57, 164, 263n86;
social taxonomy of, 151–54, 179;
terminology of, 171, 190n9, 252n21, 253–54n28
Islam (“Mahometanism”), 21, 23–25, 27–28, 197–98n56, 200–201n74, 201n75, 203n90 , 249n84
Israel:
ancient, 20, 129, 131, 133, 164, 169, 171, 194n33, 206n22;
apostolic-era, 45;
children, house, or sons of, 159, 162, 171, 175, 178–79, 194n34, 244n30, 253n28 , 257–58n58;
Judeans and, 178–79;
land of, 174, 269n130, 270n142;
mission to, 81–83;
modern, 100;
Nations and, 170, 174, 176, 179;
rabbis or sages of, 174, 175, 269n127
Israelites, 179, 270n142
James, brother of Jesus, 14, 225n59, 227n67;
Baur on, 73, 75, 218n127;
Daniélou on, 234n15;
Lightfoot on, 84, 223n38;
Morgan on, 207n31;
as “pillar,” 75, 87;
Ritschl on, 82, 87, 224n44 ;
Toland on, 25–26, 200n66, 203n92
James, Letter of, 228n72 , 258n61;
Baur on, 215n102, 218n127, 219n139; (p.301)
Lightfoot on, 87–88;
Luedemann on, 240n65 ;
Luther on, 205n17;
Ritschl on, 87, 229nn81–82;
Toland on, 203n92
James, son of Zebedee, 87, 91
Jerome, 191n13, 269n134;
Augustine and, 190n6, 241n4;
in Beroea, 172;
Boyarin on, 129, 244n32;
on Ebionites and/or Nazoraeans, 14–15, 21, 34, 85, 129–30, 171–74, 176, 190–91n10, 244n32, 265n101, 268n118 , 269n136;
Epiphanius and, 14, 34, 85, 129–30, 171–73, 177, 190n10, 244n32; Epistle 112.13, 15, 21, 173, 265n101, 268n118 ;
Isaiah commentary by, 173–74, 176, 261n70 , 268n125, 269n131;
“Jewish Christianity” not known to, 129;
on Nazoraeans as both Jews and Christians, 15, 21, 173, 265n101;
sources available to, 269n126 ;
term “Judean” as used by, 173, 177;
Toland on, 200n72;
on translation, 270n137
Jerusalem, 66, 194n33, 235n28, 253n35;
apostles or apostolic tradition of, 25, 72–73, 235n20;
“bigoted minority” in, 80;
Church or community of, 72–73, 80, 84, 86–87, 89, 169, 217n119 , 221n10, 221n13, 223n38, 234n15;
council of (Acts 15; Gal 2), 13, 49, 80, 216n107 , 217n124;
destruction of, 85, 106. See also “Pillars”; Temple, Jerusalem
Jesus, 4–5, 17, 146, 148, 149, 191n13, 202n80 , 250n14;
apologist historiography claims values of, 43, 47, 115;
apostles occlude Christianity of, 39;
consciousness (see under consciousness);
crucifixion or death of, 25, 63, 70, 213n81 ;
as “decisive factor,” 112–13;
as Deist or humanist, 22, 38, 42–45, 47;
faith in (see faith);
followers of, 27, 35, 47, 71, 76, 133, 141, 155–56, 169, 173, 216n115, 232n7, 248n84, 268n124;
as God or God-man, 4, 18, 59;
as historical figure, 46, 52, 58–60, 62, 211n66 ;
Islamic or “Mahometan,” 24–25, 27, 30, 249n84 ;
as Jewish, 2, 65, 85, 99, 102, 115, 121, 122, 153, 171, 182, 212n73 , 237n45;
as Jewish Christian, 6, 27, 30, 34, 139;
Jewish context of, 6, 33, 65–66, 87, 93, 181–82;
Judaism rejected by, 43, 45–46, 66–69, 145, 152–53, 178–79, 182;
magic and, 248–49n84;
as man, 24, 71, 199n63, 268n120;
as meme, 248n84;
as messiah (see messiah);
Moses and, 160–61, 259n66, 260n69;
natural religion and, 4, 6, 32, 34, 42, 45, 49, 182;
original Christianity of, 5, 6, 29–33, 40, 181;
Paul’s unique understanding of, 38, 51, 62–64, 76;
as prophet, 45–46, 161, 165, 205n12 , 206n25, 238n46 ;
pure Christianity of, 31;
“race of David,” and 148, 152, 250n12;
resurrection of, 64, 70, 104, 145, 213n87, 216n116, 234n17;
as Son of God, 63–64, 200n65 ;
subversive messianism of, 66, 69–70;
transcendence of, 4, 5, 31, 45–47, 51, 61, 71;
uniqueness of, 4, 61, 113
Jesus movement, 249nn1–2;
as Christian (or not Jewish), 8, 102, 111–14, 116, 119, 121, 122, 141, 145, 183, 266n111;
as Deist, 42;
diversity within, 15–16;
humanistic values of, 38;
as Jewish, 8, 13, 101–2, 118, 121, 122, 125, 139, 155;
leaders of, 13, 14;
Paul opposed by, 67 (see also apostles: Paul vs. other);
social networks of, 145
Jewish Christianity:
alternative terms for, 2, 7, 28;
antiquity lacks concept of, 12–13, 21, 120, 148, 155, 179, 189–90n1;
as apologetic construct, 27–29, 97, 100, 101, 122, 139, 182–83;
broad definitions of, 71, 93, 96–98, 106, 108, 109, 116, 118, 133, 141, 229n81, 230–31n90, 231n91, 232n5 (p.302) 235n18 , 241n83;
category’s lack of usefulness, 8–9, 102, 118–21, 126, 143, 144;
category’s usefulness, 8, 105, 132–35, 137, 139–40, 234n13 , 246n56 , 246n60, 247n69, 247n71;
Christianness of, 69, 78, 97, 106, 110–11, 134, 141, 237n44, 238n47;
contemporary debate about, 3, 10, 121, 126, 188n9;
deconstructive or subversive use of, 127, 130, 132–35, 137, 138, 142;
discovery vs. invention of, 12–13, 36;
divisions in, 71, 73, 74, 79, 85, 91, 97, 101, 106–7, 116–17, 166, 238nn53–54;
early vs. later, 107, 118–19, 128;
Enlightenment-era views of, 3, 6, 34–35;
as ethnic category, 27, 28, 93, 97, 110, 117–18, 170, 229n81, 241n80;
heresy reclassified as, 9, 13, 29;
heretical, 106–7, 111;
as “heuristic irritant,” 132;
historiography of, 6, 10, 50–51, 85, 88–89, 101, 103, 129, 139–40, 182, 188n11, 203nn1–2;
as honorific vs. derogatory, 37, 40, 76, 130;
Jewish Christians vs., 27–28, 98;
Jewishness of, 69, 92, 106, 134, 140, 239n56;
Jewish scholarship on, 232n1 (see also Schoeps; Schonfield);
Jewish “thought-forms” and, 101, 104–8, 117;
law-based definition of, 101, 108–9, 116–20, 236n31;
“mainstream”/“Great Church” vs. sectarian, 91, 96, 102–3, 106, 108, 235n20;
mainstreaming of category, 50–51, 166;
as modern category or construct, 3, 9–10, 12–13, 21, 34–36, 50, 126, 132, 189n23, 195n41;
narrow definitions of, 96, 102, 103, 109, 133, 141, 229n81, 231n90 ;
New Testament and, 71, 78, 85, 93, 119, 241n78;
New Testament scholarship and, 2, 3, 6, 37, 39, 52, 76, 88;
original or primitive, 93, 106, 112, 203n92, 225n57, 229n83;
orthodox, 103, 106, 234n15, 235n20;
Paul or anti-Paulinism and, 68, 79, 240n65 ;
polythetic definitions of, 133–34, 245n51;
post-Holocaust-era views of, 10, 105, 109, 121;
problem of defining, 2–3, 68, 91–97, 99, 101–2, 106, 119, 133, 136–37, 140, 166, 187n4, 188n9, 189n21, 237n44;
quotation marks for, 3, 96;
radical, extremist, strict, 79, 80, 81, 82, 103;
as religious category, 110–11;
sociological view of, 102–3, 108, 110, 118–19, 131, 133;
syncretic or mixed (see syncretism);
theological definitions of, 108, 110–11, 115, 118, 122;
twofold taxonomy of, 99, 139, 218n127, 239n65;
as “ways that never parted,” 132–33
Jewishness, acceptable vs. problematic forms of, 78, 90, 92, 94–97, 101
Jewish Patriarchate, 109, 110
Jewish people, the, 66, 96, 97, 214n99, 269n132
Jews:
as category or term, 8, 10, 126, 189n22;
Christians from the (see Judeans: “Christians from the”);
as ethnic group, 28, 97;
Gentiles becoming, 73;
Harnack on, 96;
hatred of or by, 34, 72;
Hort on, 226n61;
Ioudaioi translated as, 126;
Lightfoot on, 82–85, 87–88;
“living as Jew among,” 84, 88;
Messianic, 98;
Mimouni on, 240n69;
Morgan on, 48–50, 205n18;
Murray (p.303) on, 108, 235n28;
Paul and or as, 26, 48, 67, 82, 83, 113;
practices or culture of, 6, 27, 33, 126;
Reed on, 137, 247n66, 260n68, 264n91;
Ritschl on, 80, 82, 85, 224n47;
Schonfield on, 98, 231n94;
Simon on, 113, 117, 140, 238n46 ;
Judeans
John, Apocalypse of. See Revelation (Apocalypse of John)
John, Gospel of, 214n94, 223n41, 250n7, 251n17, 251n19, 253n31
John the Apostle, 26, 74, 82, 84, 88;
writings of, 43, 75, 88, 223n41
John the Baptist, 253n35
Josephus, 163, 178, 192n15, 263n82
Jossa, Giorgio, 254n41
Judaeo-Christianity, 2, 225n57, 226n60 ;
Murray on, 107;
Riegel on, 235n26
Judaism:
as ancient category, 19, 136, 148, 150, 154–55, 165, 170, 180, 247n71, 250nn13–14;
of apostles, 39, 49;
category of, 2, 8–9, 19, 130, 132–33, 189n22;
Christian (see Christian Judaism);
Christianity as a form or sect of, 128, 131, 237n42;
Christianity corrupted or occluded by, 46, 71, 76, 91–93, 97, 101, 111, 141;
Christianity’s emancipation from, 95, 97;
Christianity’s essential difference from, 67–69, 71–72, 78–79, 81–82, 89, 94, 102, 105, 112, 148;
Christianity’s ongoing relation with, 2, 109–10, 140, 187n2, 234n16, 236n38;
Christianity’s separation from, 1, 8–9, 62, 65, 67, 80, 83, 90, 96, 109–10, 123–24, 126, 128, 131, 134–38, 140, 143, 182, 187n1, 217n119 , 237n39 , 238n52, 246n61 (see also Parting of the Ways model);
Christianity within, 7–9, 27–28, 89, 93, 119, 121, 182, 244n29 ;
as cultural or historical expression, 33, 35, 124, 131, 264n90;
as ethnicity, 35;
as hairesis or heresy, 19–20, 29;
Hellenism and, 19–20;
Hellenistic, 109, 210n62, 265n91 ;
invention of, 129–30;
Jesus and, 6, 45–46, 67;
national and political forms of, 96;
New Testament and, 43, 46, 50, 51, 71, 76, 78, 85, 98;
particularism of (see particularism);
principle of, 68, 81;
rabbinic, 124, 128, 243n26;
rejection of, 1, 45–46, 68;
as religion (see under religion);
in social taxonomies, 10, 131, 133, 155, 179, 247n66;
as term of identity, 10, 124, 133;
transcendence of, 46, 112
Judaizers or Judaizing:
ancient notion of, 116, 129, 154;
anti-Pauline, 79, 89–90, 98, 226n60 , 229n84;
apostles as, 72;
apostles vs., 79, 83–84, 89, 91–93, 97, 99, 101;
Baur on, 68, 72;
Carleton Paget on, 118, 119, 120;
Catholic Church and, 98, 116, 207n31;
Ebionites as, 85;
Gentiles, 117, 239n60;
Hellenizing vs., 227n65;
heretics, 129;
ioudaïzein, 14, 148, 190n5, 190n7, 239n60;
Jewish Christians and, 207n31;
Lightfoot on, 83, 229nn84–85;
Mimouni on, 240n69;
Morgan on, 49–50, 207n31;
Peter and, 49, 207n31;
as polemical term, 116, 239n60
Judea, 4, 48, 159, 165, 200n71, 253n35;
churches in, 87;
Gentiles in, 26–27, 200n74;
Jesus in, 161, 163, 261n72
(p.304)
Judeans:
as ancestry or civic location, 147, 152;
as “believers” (or not), 21, 146, 152, 250n7;
Boyarin on self-definition of, 129;
“Christians from the,” 6, 12, 21, 25–26, 28, 48, 170, 180, 267n114;
Christians vs., 123, 144, 147–50, 152, 154, 173, 179;
culture or customs of, 14, 129–30, 145, 148–50, 158–61, 163–64, 165, 170, 178, 263n86, 264n90;
Dead Sea sect and, 112, 169–70;
Ebionites as, 15, 21;
Epiphanius on, 19–20, 171, 173, 177, 178, 195n36, 242n12, 267n112, 267n115;
as ethnos or tribe, 150, 158, 160, 261n71;
Eusebius on, 178, 267n115;
generic humanity of, 156, 159–60, 165;
as geographical-genealogical term, 10;
Gospel of Matthew on, 177, 270nn138–39;
as hairesis, 15, 19–20;
hatred of or by, 150, 251n17, 264n88;
in heresiological taxonomies, 19, 170;
historicization of name, 178;
Ignatius on, 145–49, 249n5;
Ioudaioi translated as, 10, 11, 126, 249n5;
Jerome on, 15, 21, 129, 173, 176, 177, 265n101, 268n118 ;
Josephus on, 178;
Justin on, 91, 172, 268n119;
“living like” (ioudaïzein), 14, 161, 190n5, 190n7, 239n60;
Martyrdom of Polycarp on, 149, 251n18;
“Nazoraean” commentary on Isaiah on, 175–79;
Origen on, 170, 267n114;
Paul or Pauline letters on, 14, 155;
practices and beliefs of, 129, 130, 152, 162;
Tertullian on, 268n118 . See also Ioudaioi, Ioudaïsmos; Jews
Judenchristent(h)um. See Jewish Christianity: German terms for
Justin, 86, 162, 188n12, 254nn38–39;
Baur on, 219n139;
on Christians, 103, 191n13, 192n16, 193n22 , 194n31, 238n50, 257n54 ;
on Judeans, 91, 172, 251n17, 268n119;
Lightfoot on, 229n85;
natural law theory and, 194n27, 194n31, 202n84;
Ritschl on, 224n46;
Schoeps on, 233n8
King, Karen, 126, 242n6
Kingdom of God, 60, 79, 80, 147, 162, 163, 214n96, 256n53, 266n107
kinship imagery, 1, 109, 124, 232n95 , 236n33, 243n26, 244n29
Klijn, A. F. J., 107, 244n32, 269n130, 269n132
Lampe, Peter, 250n6 , 252n21, 254n40
law, dietary. See dietary rules
law, divine or God’s, 4, 20, 48, 175, 182, 261n70
law, Jewish, 15, 20, 25, 68, 95, 174, 230n87;
apostles follow, 79–84, 86, 89, 94;
as civic or cultural, 79, 83–84, 202n89;
as defining feature, 101, 108–9, 116;
Ebionites or Nazoraeans follow, 15, 85–86, 153, 170;
Gospel and, 87;
as national, political, or pragmatic, 26, 33, 48, 86, 89, 206n29;
Paul and, 48, 82;
Toland on, 200nn67–68, 200n74, 203n92, 206n29. See also Torah
law, Levitical, 26, 33, 112
law, Mosaic, 20, 96, 112, 152, 211n73;
Lightfoot on, 84, 87;
Morgan on, 48;
law, natural. See natural law
law, ritual or ceremonial, 33
liberal humanism, 38 (p.305)
liberalism, 6–7, 47, 67, 220n2
Lieu, Judith, 125
Lightfoot, Joseph, 223n35, 223nn40–42, 224n50, 229n83;
on apostolic decree, 81, 83–84, 221n14, 223n36, 223n38;
on apostolic unity, 79–81, 83, 89, 90, 222n15;
Baur and, 77–79, 83, 85, 98, 220n3;
on Ebionites and Nazoraeans, 85–87, 91, 220n5, 223n44, 224n45, 224n52, 233n8;
on James, 223n38;
on Jesus, 82–83;
on Jewish wars, 86–87;
on John, 223n41;
on New Testament, 84–85, 87–88, 223n41;
on Peter, 223n40;
on Pharisaism, 80, 83, 85;
on principle vs. practices, 82–84, 89;
Ritschl and, 220n3, 227n69, 228n75;
terminology of, 94–95, 229–30n85
Lincoln, Bruce, 248n83
Longenecker, Richard, 107, 112–13, 234n17, 237n44
Luedemann, Gerd, 117, 233n10, 236n31, 239–40n65, 240n68
Luomanen, Petri, 132–35, 137, 141, 245n45, 245n49, 269n127
Luther, Martin, 205n17, 233n12
2 Maccabees, 10, 130–31, 165, 244n29
4 Maccabees, 258n61
magic, 45, 151, 157, 158, 163, 174–75, 178, 266n110;
Hellenistic culture of, 248–49n84;
Pseudo-Clementine Homilies on, 256n53, 257n55
“Mahometan Christianity,” 22–23, 27, 30, 35, 190n2, 196nn47–48, 197nn50–52, 198n57, 200n65 , 200n74, 201n76. See also Muslims
Maimonides, 200n67
Malina, Bruce, 108, 235n29
Manichaeans, 15, 167
Marcionites, 15, 108, 111, 127, 167, 220n5
Mark, Gospel of, 79, 176
martyrdom, 72, 149–50
Martyrdom of Peter and Paul, 250n7
Martyrdom of Polycarp, 149–50, 250n10, 250–51n15, 251nn16–20
Mason, Steve, 129, 189n22, 190n7, 250n11, 250n13, 263n84
Matthew, Gospel of, 60–61, 79, 171, 176, 177, 193n23, 219n140, 260n70, 267n116, 269nn135–36
messiah, 113, 118, 140, 249n84 , 270n142;
Morgan on, 45–46;
national, 70, 71
Methodius, 202n84, 252n25
Mimouni, Simon Claude, 119–20, 233n10, 236n31, 240n69, 241n78
miracle(s), 41, 44, 45, 58, 163, 206n26, 210n62, 249n84 , 251n18;
authorizing, 41;
Paul’s conversion as, 46, 63, 70, 210n63
Mishnah, 174, 269nn126–27
moral law or religion, 31, 45–46, 56, 66. See also consciousness: moral
morals, 50, 74, 84
Morgan, Thomas, 7, 10, 122, 125, 178, 194n34;
apologetic historiography of, 43, 47, 51, 139;
apostolic authority redefined by, 43–44;
background of, 39, 204n3;
Baur and, 37–39, 51–52, 61, 62, 63, 71, 75, 90, 99, 101, 113, 139, 203–4n2;
Deist or Enlightenment values of, 7, 10, 37, 39, 139, 205nn12–13, 206n21;
fame of, 39, 45;
historical argument of, 48–50, 205n12 ;
occlusionistic model of, 39, 99, 101;
term “Jewish Christianity” used by, 40, 46, 49, 204n4, 207n31;
(p.306)
Moses, 20, 26, 94, 196nn47–48, 199n64, 203n90 , 203n92, 206n21;
Irenaeus on law given to, 152;
in Pseudo-Clementine Homilies, 159–61, 255n48, 257–58n58, 258n59, 259n66, 260n68–69, 261nn70–71, 264n89
Muhammad (“Mahomet”), 27, 196n46, 199n61
Murray, Robert, 107–8, 235n28, 245n51
Muslims (“Mahometans”), 23–24, 27, 196n46, 197n52, 198nn57–60, 199n61, 201n79. See also Islam; “Mahometan Christianity”
Myllykoski, Matti, 21
mystery, 32, 42, 202n88, 270n137
mystery religions, 194n28
nationalism, 45, 66, 69, 70
nations, the. See ethnē; Gentiles
natural law, 32, 111, 161, 164, 188n12, 194n31, 201n80, 202n86;
Christianity as, 31–32;
Epiphanius on, 17–18;
eternal or perpetual (nomon aiōnion), 156–57, 159;
Irenaeus’s view of, 152, 194n27, 252n23;
Jewish law and, 258n61;
Stoic theory of, 151, 202n84, 255n48
natural piety, 18
natural religion, 45, 49, 182, 204n6, 205n12 ;
Christianity as, 31–32, 35, 42;
as humanistic notion, 35;
instantiated in Jewish Christianity, 34–35;
Jesus’s religion as, 4, 6;
revealed religion vs., 41–43
Nazis, 1, 98, 100, 102, 109, 231n95
“Nazoraean” commentary on Isaiah, 171, 173–74, 176, 178, 181, 261n70 , 268n125
Nazoraeans:
as Christians (or not), 15, 21, 34, 85, 130, 172, 200n73, 268n118 ;
early references to, 12, 14–15, 24, 91, 172, 180–81, 192n15;
Ebionites conflated with, 171–72, 199n62, 233n8;
Ebionites distinguished from, 74, 85, 91, 167, 172, 181, 191n10 , 224n47;
as hairesis or heretics, 21, 29, 86, 190n10;
Ignatius on, 15;
Islam and, 24;
as Jews (or not), 21, 200n73;
Lightfoot or Ritschl on, 85–87, 224n47, 224n52;
renamed Jewish Christians, 13, 22, 29;
Tertullian on, 268n118 ;
Nazōraioi, Nazarenos, 172, 268n118
New Testament, 119, 234n14, 234n17;
authority of (see under authority);
Baur on, 51, 57, 65, 71, 74–75, 78, 91, 214n93, 219nn139–41;
Catholicism and, 50, 74–75, 77, 79, 85, 98;
critical study of, 2, 3, 6–7, 10, 12, 37–39, 50–52, 55, 57, 60, 75–78, 88–89, 92, 96, 139, 207n34;
deauthorization of, 51, 53–54, 76;
Jewish Christianity of, 77, 85, 88, 93, 97, 107, 226n60 , 229n81;
Jewishness or Judaism of, 43, 46, 50, 67, 76, 78, 85, 90, 92, 227n66;
Lieu on, 125;
Lightfoot on, 85, 87–89, 223n38, 223n41;
Morgan on, 43–44, 46, 50;
noncanonical or extracanonical vs., 96, 101;
reauthorization of, 84, 87–88, 91, 97–98;
Schliemann on, 92–93
Nicaea, 5
Noah, 19, 151, 158
noncanonical literature, 7, 54, 96, 107, 216n111
occlusionistic model, 7, 9, 39, 79, 91–92, 97, 102, 124;
Baur’s, 66–68, 85, 87, 89, 101;
below surface, 100;
normative (p.307) vs. descriptive use of, 99;
in post-Holocaust era, 101, 121
Old Testament, 79, 81, 94, 96–97, 202n89
“original Christianity,” 5–6, 141, 143, 181, 205n12 , 230n90, 238n54;
in apologetic histories, 5–6, 29–31;
apostles and, 39, 48–49, 89, 92;
authorizing power of, 28, 30–31, 75, 112, 139, 166, 167;
Catholicism and, 90;
corrupted by Jews or Judaism, 7, 39, 46–47, 76;
corrupted by pagans, 6;
faith as defining feature of, 140;
heresiologists’ use of, 167, 180;
Jewish Christianity as, 92–93, 100, 166;
Jewish Christianity vs., 96;
normative implications of, 29–30, 38, 56, 57, 209n57;
Protestant Christianity and, 75;
Toland on, 6, 29–31, 33, 199n64, 201n80;
true Christianity and, 38, 42, 51, 56, 199n64, 201n80, 205n12 ;
as Urchristenthum, 50, 88, 207n33, 220n7, 225n53 , 225n58, 237n45. See also “primitive Christianity”
Orpheus, 256n54
orthodoxy, 7, 34, 40, 50, 75–76, 88, 240n68;
of apostolic community, 47, 106–7;
Catholic, 31, 51, 95, 104, 111, 114, 116–17;
Deism or humanism vs., 6, 22, 41, 139;
Gentile or Pauline Christianity and, 47, 76, 98, 107, 130, 139;
Irenaeus and, 150, 153–54;
Jewish, 124;
Jewish Christianity and, 106–7, 111, 139;
Protestant, 6, 50;
relativized, 54;
supernatural views and, 51, 58
pagans, 6, 47, 65, 213n89, 256n54, 261n71, 264n91
panentheism, 54
papacy or “papism,” 30, 50, 75, 202n81, 219n136
particularism, 164;
Simon on, 110, 237n39
Parting of the Ways model, 1–3, 10, 187n1, 236n35, 248n81;
breakdown of, 2–3, 10, 124, 141;
criticism of, 1, 8, 122, 132–33, 135, 140–41, 189n21;
Ignatius and, 136;
as modern construct, 3, 7–8;
in post-Holocaust era, 10, 109, 121, 124;
Simon as pioneer of, 122, 140
passions, 156–57, 160
Pauline Christianity:
Baur on literature of, 219nn139–40;
Catholicism and, 74;
Jewish Christianity vs., 38, 47–48, 51, 71–79, 98, 107, 113, 215n101, 217n124, 219n133 , 219n139;
Nazoraeans and, 85;
principles or theology of, 63, 67, 82, 88, 213n82, 214n93, 214n99, 217n121, 218–19n133;
rituals of, 74;
transcendent, 51, 98;
as true Christianity, 76, 205n17
Paul the Apostle:
as apostle of Jesus, 63, 267n117;
as Christian (or not), 2, 8, 44, 62, 67, 69, 85, 113, 125, 187n6, 212n80, 255n42 ;
conversion of, 62–63, 72;
Ebionite or Nazoraean view of, 25–26, 169, 171, 174–76, 179, 266n109, 267n117, 269n134;
Gospel of Barnabas on, 24–25, 198n60, 200n65 ;
Harnack on, 226n60 ;
Hort on, 225n59;
importance of, 38, 43–44, 49, 62, 67, 201n77;
on Ioudaïsmos or ioudaïzein, 155, 190n5;
Jewish Christianity and, 7, 46–48, 70–71, 74, 76, 79–80, 92–94, 106, 110, 240n65 ;
Jewishness or Judaism of, 65, 67–68, 93, (p.308) 79, 87, 92–94, 98–99, 216n111;
letters or writings of, 13–14, 39–40, 44, 51, 63, 67, 72, 74, 76, 83, 93, 155, 200n66, 249n2;
Lightfoot on, 95, 220n5, 221n14, 222n15, 229n85;
mission of, 79–83, 87, 176, 215n107;
Munck on, 106;
“new reading” of, 26, 269n134, 242n13;
opposition to, 25, 49, 65, 67–68, 70, 73, 78, 81, 89, 90, 94, 98, 211n73, 216n107 , 229n84, 231n93, 233n8, 240n65 ;
Peter and (see under Peter);
revelatory experience of, 46, 62, 64–65, 67, 70, 72, 212n80, 217nn121–22;
Ritschl on, 93–94, 220n7;
Schonfield on, 231n93;
sent to ethnē, 13;
Simon on, 110, 113–14, 116, 118, 238n47;
Tertullian on, 266n109;
Toland on, 24–26, 32;
true or pure Christianity of, 50, 51, 62, 85, 125, 205n17
Pella, 226n61, 237n42
Pentecost, 93
persecution, 49, 72, 198n57, 231n94
Persians, 10, 158, 256n53
Peter the Apostle, 14, 225n59, 226n60 , 228nn74–75, 263n85;
Baur on, 72–75;
Jewish Christianity of, 50, 73;
John and, 84, 88;
as Judaizer, 49, 207n31, 239n60;
Lightfoot on, 84, 88, 222n15, 223n40, 224n44 ;
Morgan on, 49–50, 207n31;
Pseudo-Clementine Homilies on, 156, 161–63, 181, 223n40, 224n44 , 255n46, 257n57, 261nn72–74, 262n78, 263n81, 263n87;
revelatory experience of, 84, 223n40;
Ritschl on, 82, 84, 222n29;
Pharisaic Christians, 80, 84, 85, 88
Pharisees, 15, 20, 115, 192n19, 261n70 , 270n136 ;
Baur on, 61;
Jerome on, 268n118 ;
“Nazoraean” commentary on Isaiah on, 174–77, 261n70 , 269n127;
Pseudo-Clementine Homilies on, 159, 161, 258n60, 260–61n70
Philemon, 219n140
Philippians, 14, 219n140
Phoenicia or Phoenicians, 158, 162, 194n28, 252n25
Phrygia or Phrygians, 150, 194n28, 251n19
piety or the pious, 31, 83, 113, 169, 171, 175–76, 248n84, 251n16, 2264n89;
Epiphanius on, 17–20, 178;
Pseudo-Clementine Homilies on, 158, 159, 161, 163–65, 256n54, 257n58, 259nn62–63, 259n66, 261n72, 262n80
“Pillars” (of Jerusalem community;
of Gal 2), 75, 84, 85, 87, 89, 206–7n29, 221n14, 224n44
Plato, vi, 193n25, 234n17
Poor, the, 168–71, 266n106–7
Porphyry, 190n6
postapostolic era, 49, 71, 74, 77, 86, 91, 119, 207n31, 229n84, 240n65
priests or clergy, 31–32, 42, 45, 89
“primitive Christianity,” 116, 207n32, 221n8 , 223n44, 233n7 ;
Harnack on, 89, 90;
Jewish Christianity as type of, 218n131 (see also Jewish Christianity: original or primitive);
Toland on, 21, 198n59. See also “original Christianity”
prophets, 19, 46, 61, 148, 153, 174, 176, 205n12 , 206n21, 253n32;
false or corrupt, (p.309) 45, 191n13;
Old Testament, 79, 81;
in Pseudo-Clementine Homilies, 160–61, 165, 259n66, 263n87
proselytes, 48, 245n43 , 264n89;
“of the gate,” 82, 84;
“of the Judeans,” 156, 162, 165, 180, 258n58 , 259n64
Protestant Reformation, 43, 219
Protestants, 50, 52, 75, 111, 202n81, 208n44;
authorities for, 7, 43;
liberal, 104, 232n96, 233n12;
New Testament and, 5–7, 219n141
Psalms of Solomon, 169, 269n135, 270n142
Pseudo-Clementine Homilies, 156, 255n46;
Canaanite woman in, 162, 262n76;
diet or food in, 157, 256nn50–52, 258nn61–62, 262n74 , 263n81;
on false scripture, 260n69;
Giants in, 157, 258n61;
Gospel of Matthew and, 260–61n70;
Greeks or Greek education in, 158, 159, 160, 163–64, 180, 256–57n54, 257nn55–56, 259n64, 263n86;
Jewish Christians and, 156, 165, 182, 218n132;
Judeans/Hebrews in (see Judeans: in Pseudo-Clementine Homilies);
“the Nations” in, 156, 159–62, 164–65, 260n67, 261n71, 261n73, 264n89;
social taxonomy in, 156, 158, 164, 171, 176, 181;
terminology or language of, 159–60, 258–59n58, 259n64, 264nn89–90
Pseudo-Clementine literature, 67, 74, 85, 92, 166, 181, 219n139, 237n42, 264n91, 265n97, 271n143;
Jewish Christianity and, 155–56;
Recognitions, 156
Pseudo-Tertullian, 170, 192n19, 193n25
purity, 24, 44, 93;
Christian, 101, 105 (see also Christianity: pure);
hybrids vs., 129–30, 138;
in pseudo-Clementine Homilies, 258n61, 260n70, 262n75, 263n81
Qur’an (Alcoran), 196n46, 199n61, 249n84
rabbis, 46, 174–79, 181, 243n22, 258n60, 269n127, 269n129, 269n133;
Akiva, 174;
Meir, 174;
Yohanan ben Zakkai, 174
race (genos), 252n25, 253n32;
of Adam, 151, 252n23;
Canaanite, 162;
of Christ, 152–53, 250n12;
Christians as, 149–53, 156, 164, 251n16;
of David, 148, 152, 250n12, 253n33;
diverse human, 151, 251n16, 252n24;
generic human, 151, 156, 251n16;
of Ham, 158, 252n25;
Irenaeus on, 151–53;
of Tiberius Caesar, 162;
translation of, 251n16
rationalism, 31, 47, 52–54, 203n1, 206n20, 210n65
reason (logos, logismos), 17–18, 31, 151, 156–59, 193n22 , 194n31, 255n48, 256n51, 257n54 , 258n61, 259n66;
Morgan on, 42, 45, 49, 204n6, 205n12 , 205n19
redescription, 27, 102, 126, 130, 182, 242n15
Reed, Annette Yoshiko, 2, 9, 118, 132, 137–38, 141, 143, 246n63, 246–47n65, 247nn66–69;
on “before and after” model, 135–36, 142–43, 246n61;
on Pseudo-Clementine Homilies, 256n54, 259n64, 260n68, 261n71, 261n73, 262n80, 263n85, 264n91;
(p.310)
regeneration, 33, 151, 161, 163–64, 262n75
religion:
absolute, 55, 209nn53–54, 217n119 ;
ancestral or fathers’, 20;
in ancient world (or not), 8, 126, 129, 189n25, 237n41, 242n14, 244n31, 247n66;
Christianity as (or not), 1–2, 3, 8, 11, 15, 29, 32, 41–42, 52, 129, 203n90 , 246n61;
civic and political institutions vs., 31;
culture vs., 4, 6, 32–33, 131, 264n90;
invention of category of, 9, 129, 247n69;
Jewish law and, 25, 48, 203n92, 206n26, 206n29;
Judaism as (or not), 1, 8, 10–11, 33, 35, 46, 129–32, 244n30;
mixing of, 111–13, 238n48;
nationality or ethnicity and, 28–29, 97;
natural (see natural religion);
pure, 129;
true, 31–33, 41, 51, 52, 194n34, 204n11;
universal or universalistic, 6, 35, 45, 90, 96
Revelation (Apocalypse of John), 43, 87, 88, 187n5, 219n139, 223n41, 227n66, 229n82, 264n89
revelation (source of knowledge), 40–42, 44–45, 49, 100, 110, 112, 113, 161, 206n26, 208n49, 209nn52–53, 233n12, 234n17, 237n44;
Baur on, 53–55, 57–58, 62–63, 65, 67, 69, 70, 72;
“faith in Jesus” Daniélou on, 104–5;
vs., 140;
as historical explanation, 58, 101, 104, 123;
supernatural, 5, 41, 54, 57–58, 104–5, 111, 181–82;
true Christianity and, 42, 53. See also Paul the Apostle: revelatory experience of
Riegel, Stanley, 107–8, 235n26
Ritschl, Albrecht, 122, 220n2, 220n7, 224n53, 233n8;
on apostolic unity, 79–80, 83, 89, 90, 222nn15–16;
Baur and, 77–79, 98, 220n2, 221n8 , 224n53, 227n69;
on Bible or New Testament, 85, 87–89, 221n8 , 224–25n53, 229nn81–82;
on early Catholicism, 222n42 , 224n49;
on Ebionites and Nazoraeans, 85–87, 91, 93, 224n46;
eschatology in argument of, 82, 83;
on Gentile mission, 80–82, 221n11, 222nn22–23;
on Jerusalem community, 221n10, 221n13;
on Jewish law, 81, 83, 222n24, 224n47;
on Jewish wars, 85–86, 224n48;
Lightfoot and, 220n3, 222n14 , 223n38, 224n45;
on Peter, 82, 84, 222n29, 228n75;
on principle vs. practice, 81–83, 89, 221n14, 222nn25–26;
terminology of, 93–95, 101, 229n78, 229nn80–81
ritual, 42, 45, 64, 74, 111, 161, 163, 244n30, 248n84, 251n17;
Mosaic, 84, 87;
Pseudo-Clementine Homilies on, 258n61, 262n75
Roman Catholic Church, 5, 103, 104, 233n12. See also Catholicism
Roman Empire, 109, 224n48;
Jewish wars with, 85–86, 89–90, 103, 224n48
Romans (NT book), 13, 14, 169, 214n99, 219n140, 240n65 , 250n12, 267n116
Romans (people), 162, 163, 270n140
Ruether, Rosemary Radford, 124
Sadducees, 15, 20, 192n19, 193n25, 195n35
Samaritans or Samaritanism, 20, 168, 192n19, 195n35 , 229n85, 257n55
Schleiermacher, Friedrich, 52–53, 59–60, 208n42, 208n44, 211nn66–67, 211n72
Schliemann, Adolph, 92–94, 96, 227nn69–72, 228nn72–77
Schoeps, Hans Joachim:
background of, 102;
Carleton Paget and, 118–19;
Daniélou and, 105, 187n4;
impact of, 103;
Simon and, 108, 110, 140;
sociological approach of, 103, 118, 140;
terminology of, 102, 105, 231n91, (p.311) 232n5, 232nn6–7, 233nn7–8;
Theologie und Geschichte, 232nn4–5
Schonfield, Hugh, 97–98, 189n23, 231nn93–95, 232n96, 232n1
Schwegler, Albert, 60, 211n73, 220n1, 220n4, 229n78
scribes, 159, 161, 175, 176, 235n28, 270n136
Scythianism, 17, 194n29
sects, 135, 196n46, 199n61, 265n99;
defined, 249n1;
Ebionite and Nazoraean, 25, 87, 129, 168, 220n5, 268n123;
haireseis as, 15, 18, 167–68, 192n14 , 193n23;
heretical or heterodox, 105–6, 129;
Judaizing, 229nn84–85;
syncretizing, 117, 238n53
Seeberg, Reinhold, 96, 102, 230n88
Sergius the Nestorian monk, 199n61
Sermon on the Mount, 60, 219n140
sibling rivalry. See kinship imagery
Simon, Marcel, 101, 108–18, 133, 226n62, 236n31, 236n38, 238nn47–50, 239n61;
apologetics below surface of, 110;
Boyarin on, 127;
on change, 114;
on christianisme sémitique, 116, 239n57;
Daniélou and, 115, 234nn16–17, 236n30 , 239n57;
on dosage problem, 115–16, 239n56;
on faith in Jesus, 113, 140, 237n44, 237n46, 248n80;
Luedemann on, 117, 239n65;
on mixing or syncretism, 110, 113, 117, 238n49, 238n53;
Parting of the Ways model and, 122, 140, 236n35, 237n39 , 238n52;
on Paul, 113;
social-historical method of, 108, 110, 112, 140, 238n54;
Torah observance as criterion for, 101, 108–9, 116;
Simon Magus, 162, 257n55, 260n69, 261n73, 264n88
Skarsaune, Oskar, 21, 188n8, 189n1, 250n7
social taxonomies, 10, 136–37, 142, 144, 155, 156, 167, 170, 171, 180–81, 189n25;
Epiphanius’s, 173;
Ignatius’s, 145, 148–49;
Irenaeus’s, 151, 164;
in Pseudo-Clementine Homilies, 164, 171
Socinianism, 199n63, 201n75
Socrates, 194n31, 238n50, 256n54, 257n54
sorcery or sorcerors, 17, 266n110. See also magic
soul, the, 34, 203n92, 253n35;
Pseudo-Clementine Homilies on, 156–57, 159, 161, 165, 255–56n49, 256nn51–52, 258n62, 259nn65–66, 261n74, 262n75
South, Robert, 23–24, 201n79
spirit, 33, 36, 53–55, 57–58, 64, 208n49, 234n17, 237n44, 253n32, 256n52;
as essence of religion or people, 46, 90, 203n92, 217n119 ;
familiar, 174;
pneuma, 214n99. See also Holy Spirit
Stemberger, Günter, 118
Stephen, Leslie, 205n13
Strauss, David Friedrich, 60, 211n72, 212n74
subjectivity, 54, 60
supernatural forces, 211n72, 234n17;
Baur on, 51–52, 54, 57–58, 63, 104, 210n62, 214n95;
Daniélou on, 104–5;
Enlightenment or humanist distaste for, 4, 51–52, 54, 104, 181. See also revelation (source of knowledge): supernatural
syncretism, 8, 31, 110, 113–17, 164, 227n67, 238n49, 238n53
Syria, 145, 156 (p.312)
Talmud, 256n50
taxonomies, 2, 27, 137;
alternative, 136, 138–39, 143, 155, 181;
of Christianism or Christianity, 15–16, 22–23, 28, 35, 135, 146, 148–49, 238n50;
Christianity and Judaism separated in, 136, 138, 144–45, 150, 152–55, 173, 176, 247n66, 254n36;
dissemination of, 179–81;
of heresies, 5, 14, 15–16, 167–68, 170, 194n29, 234n15;
of Jewish Christianity, 2, 7, 10, 79, 92, 99, 106, 130;
naturalized, 165, 180;
of religions, 11, 15, 41, 135;
social realities vs., 136;
for study of antiquity, 124–25, 135–36, 142. See also categories; social taxonomies
teleology, 104, 124
Temple, Jerusalem, 125, 217n119 , 235n28;
fall or destruction of, 82, 86, 225n59, 227n67, 238n52
Tertullian, 16, 188n12, 193n22 , 244n32, 247n66, 261n73;
Against the Jews, 194n33;
Prescription against Heretics, 16, 190n6, 191n13, 192n18, 192nn20–21, 193n23, 193n25, 254n35 , 266n109, 268n118 . See also Pseudo-Tertullian
theocracy, 203n90 , 214n96, 219n136
theology, 7, 9, 10, 78, 196n44 , 204n4, 237n44;
critical or historical scholarship and, 7, 9, 10, 75, 100–105, 122–23, 139–41, 182, 220n7, 221n8 ;
Daniélou’s, 104, 233n12;
German, 37, 50, 203n1;
Hellenistic, 104;
humanism and, 38;
of Jewish Christianity, 102–3, 234n14, 234n17, 240n65 , 240n67
Therapeutae, 268n124
1 Thessalonians, 14, 219n140
Toland, John, 6–7, 122, 197n50;
ambiguity in writings by, 23, 197n55, 198–99n60;
anticlericalism of, 31–32, 199n60 , 202n82;
apologetic historiography of, 27–35;
Baur and, 37–39, 51, 52, 65, 75, 77, 79, 92, 139, 203–4n2, 207n35, 227n70;
Christianity not Mysterious, 23, 24, 32, 198n59, 207n35;
critics of, 13, 30, 92, 199n60 , 201n80;
on Ebionite-Nazoraean relationship, 199n62;
French-language draft by, 190n2, 196n48, 197n49 , 200n65 ;
on Galatians, 25, 26;
historical argument of, 24–27, 35, 47, 76, 90;
Hodegus, 203n90 , 206n29;
importance of, 9, 12–13, 76;
on James, 25, 26, 203n92;
Mangoneutes, 198n57, 199n60 , 202n89;
Morgan and (see under Morgan, Thomas);
Nazarenus drafts by, 23, 196n47, 197nn51–53, 197–98n56, 201n79;
Nazarenus’s publication date, 21, 22, 190n2, 197n51;
as “only a historian,” 22, 195n42;
as revisionist or subversive, 12, 21, 22, 30, 130;
Schonfield and, 98, 232n96;
taxonomy of, 22–24, 27–28, 35;
term “Jewish Christianity” used by, 12, 130, 139, 166, 195n41;
Tetradymus, 203n90 ;
thesis of, 29, 200n68;
title chosen by, 22, 196nn47–48, 201n76;
on true or original Christianity, 22, 29–33, 139, 166, 195n43, 198n59, 199n64, 201n80, 202n81;
“union without uniformity” of, 6, 25, 32, 33, 47
Torah, 169, 224n47;
apostles follow, 79–81, 84;
Jewish Christianity defined with reference to, 101, 108–9, 116–17, 119–20, 239n65, (p.313) 240n69;
in “Nazoraean” commentary on Isaiah, 174, 178;
in Pseudo-Clementine Homilies, 161, 258n61, 258n62, 260n68, 261n70 . See also law, Jewish
translation, 270n137
Trinitarianism, 23, 28
Tübingen School, 50–51, 77, 88, 98, 101, 207n34, 220n1, 220nn3–4
Unitarianism, 23, 28, 199n63, 200n65
universalism, 57, 60–61, 96
Valentinus, 153–54, 179, 193n25, 254n36, 260n69
values, 15, 69, 75, 115, 153, 166;
authority claimed for own, 139;
continuity claimed for own, 5, 180;
Judean, 148, 154, 181;
not-Judean, 179;
retrojected onto apostles, 122, 173, 253n34;
retrojected onto Jesus, 43, 47, 51, 57, 115, 122, 196n44 ;
retrojected onto “original Christianity,” 5, 30, 31, 38, 114–15, 139, 166, 180;
of rivals, 43, 116, 167, 180
virgules, 119–20, 128, 137
Wellhausen, Julius, 182, 237n45
Zoroaster, 158