This chapter explains the current environmental challenges to carbon emissions. Such emissions have resulted in drastic climatic changes leading to terrible consequences. World leaders confronted climate change in the early 1990s, and two decades ago signed the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. Despite innumerable conferences, summits, proclamations, agreements, and policy interventions, nothing much has so far been achieved, and indeed some of the interventions may have made things worse. Understanding why climate change matters, what causes it, who is responsible, and why so little progress has been made is a necessary exercise because it reveals the underlying raw nature of the problems faced in the early twenty-first century. The problem of carbon emissions will not get addressed unless carbon is integrated directly into economies and economic decision-making.
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