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Risk, Chance, and CausationInvestigating the Origins and Treatment of Disease$
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Michael B. Bracken

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780300188844

Published to Yale Scholarship Online: October 2013

DOI: 10.12987/yale/9780300188844.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM YALE SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.yale.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Yale University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in YSO for personal use.date: 23 June 2021

The Study of Mankind Is Man

The Study of Mankind Is Man

Reflections on Animal Research

(p.171) Eleven The Study of Mankind Is Man
Risk, Chance, and Causation

Michael B. Bracken

Yale University Press

This chapter is an attempt to provide a formal examination of how frequent and how well animal research is being systematically reviewed in the medical literature. This matters because most medical research is founded on animal experimentation. Before the first tests in humans and the large-scale clinical trials, a theoretical model is first proposed, followed by potential in vitro work at the molecular level, and finally, animal experiments are conducted. This entire process is vital since, if the biological reasoning is flawed and the animal research poorly conducted, the entire structure of scientific research crumbles, patients are put at needless risk, and millions in research funds are wasted. The problem with clinical trials is that nine out of ten of them are recognized to fail, a state of affairs that jeopardizes the future of the pharmaceutical industry and the creation of new drugs.

Keywords:   animal research, medical literature, medical research, clinical trials, biological reasoning, scientific research, pharmaceutical industry

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