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European Intellectual History from Rousseau to Nietzsche$
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Frank M Turner and Richard A. Lofthouse

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780300207293

Published to Yale Scholarship Online: September 2015

DOI: 10.12987/yale/9780300207293.001.0001

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The Turn to Subjectivity

The Turn to Subjectivity

(p.52) Chapter 4 The Turn to Subjectivity
European Intellectual History from Rousseau to Nietzsche

Frank M. Turner

, Richard A. Lofthouse
Yale University Press

This chapter first discusses the Protestant Evangelical Awakening, a religious movement that swept across the transatlantic world from central Europe to Massachusetts in the early eighteenth century. The awakening commenced in the 1730s and lasted for about a quarter of a century in different degrees of intensity in different regions. The story of the evangelical awakening is important because it revivified the Protestant impulses in European and American culture to inwardness. It also fostered the antinomian impulse to challenge existing ecclesiastical structures and established clergy. The remainder of the chapter deals with Protestants whose lives were deeply influenced by Protestant pietism and Protestant theology, namely Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Immanuel Kant. It explains their turn to subjectivity which represented a rejection of existing intellectual, social, or religious authority.

Keywords:   religious movements, Protestant Evangelical Awakening, Protestants, religion, theology, pietism, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Immanuel Kant, freedom

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