This chapter discusses the thought of Friedrich Nietzsche, the most important voice in the revolt against Positivism and the radical critique of bourgeois culture of the nineteenth century. Nietzsche's thought went through at least two stages of development. During the first, he stood closely aligned with the tradition of Romanticism and frequently seemed to praise the irrational. At this time he was closely associated with Wagner. The second stage of his thought brought him nearer to the Enlightenment as he championed criticism, cosmopolitanism, the concept of the good European, and criticized nationalism. Throughout both periods he was generally critical of liberalism and what he regarded as the philistinism of middle-class culture. Like so many German philosophers he used reason to challenge or to delimit the realm of reason.
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