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The Green State in Africa$
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Carl Death

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780300215830

Published to Yale Scholarship Online: January 2017

DOI: 10.12987/yale/9780300215830.001.0001

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Green Economies and Environmental Markets

Green Economies and Environmental Markets

(p.152) Chapter 5 Green Economies and Environmental Markets
The Green State in Africa

Carl Death

Yale University Press

This chapter examines the rise of discourses of the ‘green economy’ in Africa, and the construction of new markets in environmental goods and services. It begins by explaining how markets and economies are always political creations and are intimately connected to the production of state effects, drawing on theorists like Timothy Mitchell and Bob Jessop. The evolution of global green economy discourses is then charted, showing how the climate and financial crises in the 2000s gave new impetus to older discourses. The concept of a green economy has gained considerable traction across Africa, with prominent national strategies in Ethiopia, Rwanda, South Africa and elsewhere. This chapter identifies four main discourses of the green economy: green resilience, green growth, green transformation, and green revolution. Whilst green growth is currently dominant, each discourse can be identified somewhere in Africa, particularly in governmental interventions to reshape land use practices, invest in renewable energy, and expand big infrastructure projects related to natural resources like mining and hydropower. In many cases, green economy discourses are being employed to legitimate extractive and unjust forms of development which create consider popular resistance.

Keywords:   Green economy, Growth, Resilience, Transformation, Resilience, Markets, Ecosystem services, Agriculture, Mining, Renewable energy

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