This chapter concludes the argument of the book and shows how environmental politics in Africa is central to the production of state effects, and vice versa. The theoretical framework, inspired by postcolonial approaches, produces a powerful way to categorise and assess African environmental politics in terms of the governance and contestation of land, populations, economies and international relations. Moreover, this chapter argues that green states in Africa are distinctive, compared to those elsewhere, in terms of the centrality of land and conservation, the importance of ‘the peasant question’, the importance of green modernisation and industrialisation strategies, and the assertion of continental solidarity. Based on the analysis of the political implications of these green state effects, the conclusion suggests that political resources should be marshalled in support of hybrid forms of territorialisation, environmental dissidents, radical strategies of green transformation, and relations of critical transnational solidarity. Taking green states in Africa seriously will challenge existing debates in global environmental governance, and encourage them to become more genuinely global than they have been hitherto.
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