This chapter examines the state of income inequality in India. A vigorous debate is currently underway in India and abroad about the question of economic inequality, especially in the wake of spectacular economic growth in the aftermath of the country's embrace of liberal economic policies. The debate has focused on whether or not growth should be seen as the principal engine for reducing inequalities. Atul Kohli, a noted political scientist, proffers a third view. He focuses on the shift to more market-oriented policies and their myriad shortcomings. According to Kohli, the persistence of poverty and the growth in inequality stem from the policy choices of a number of regimes, starting in the 1990s, to favor corporate entities at the cost of addressing public and social needs.
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