This chapter examines microbial contamination of groundwater that can threaten drinking water supplies and the importance of proper well construction and protection. Case studies are presented of E. coli poisoning in Walkerton, Ontario and viruses in Wisconsin. The Walkerton incident in 2000 caused Canadian provinces to take a hard look at their drinking water safety through better monitoring, enforcement, training, and source-water protection programs. The Wisconsin case study illustrates the potential for viruses from leaking sewers to contaminant municipal wells.
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