This introductory chapter considers the spectrum that confounds the established scientific and cultural narrative about what “belongs” and what does not, and that the passage of time, even on a scale humans can readily make sense of, can reclassify something's belongingness. In the realm of Hawaiian birds, the villains are usually constituted as invasive species, and feather gatherers and collectors who killed very rare birds on the edge of extinction, and actors that continue to destroy native habitat. But the lives of birds in Hawaiʻi, birds of all kinds, along with the lives of humans there, have been marked by irregular change, naturalization, accommodation, disappearance, and reappearance. Villains in the nineteenth century thus became heroes in the twentieth, and vice versa.
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